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Difference Between Biology and Biotechnology

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MVSAT 2024

Biology and Biotechnology 

There are many disciplines in science that seem to share some common ideas. However, as a subject, there are many major differences between biology and biotechnology. Biology as a subject studies living beings whereas biotechnology is a related branch of biology which deals with the living organisms to develop various products for human beings. To put it in simpler words, biology focuses on the life forms and life processes within the living organisms. It is typically related to the growth, evolution, reproduction, body functions, behaviour, of living beings. 

Biotechnology is a branch of science that studies various biological processes in living beings and makes technological advancement in different fields to serve mankind. 

What is Biology?

Biology is a discipline related to the study of life. It focuses on the living organism, their origins, physiology, anatomy, morphology, behaviour, and distribution. Interestingly, this subject caters to various other sub-branches and disciplines of science. It helps us to understand the functions of living organisms and how they interact on multiple levels.

What is Biotechnology?

Biotechnology is a vast branch of biology that makes use of living organisms and systems. This helps to create and develop new products or make technological applications for sustainable use. It mainly seeks to explore modern science with the routes of biology and technology to help serve mankind. 

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What is the Difference Between Biology and Biotechnology?

To know what is the difference between biology and biotechnology, we have to know certain facts.  

The Course of Study: Biology is all about studying the life of living beings and their functions. This interdisciplinary field can be explored through various sub-branches like zoology, botany, physiology, anthropology, biochemistry, biotechnology, and many more. Further one can conduct research, make conversation, deal with healthcare facilities, etc. Biotechnology is a sub-branch of biology, and this is the main difference between biotechnology and biology. It exploits living beings to develop new products. 

The Nature of The Study: Biology as a subject is purely based on living organisms. It can be further classified into three main subcategories like zoology, botany and physiology. Biotechnology focuses on a particular field that deals with technological implementations. The principal focus remains on the latest advancements made in medicine and medical processes. This creates a significant difference between biology and biotechnology.

Anatomy of Living Beings: The difference between biology and biotechnology is the anatomy of the living organisms. Biology focuses on the anatomy and physiology of living beings. Biotechnology, on the other hand, is concerned about technology. It has nothing to do with the anatomy and physiology of living beings that are of the least importance. 

Impact on The Environment: There is another difference between biotechnology and biology, that is, the aspect of the environment. Biology only explains about the environment, its phenomenon, and the impact on the entire ecosystem. Biotechnology uses this traditional knowledge of biology and combines it with technology so that it offers benefits to mankind and the environment. 

Principles of Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering: Modern biotechnology gives importance to genetic engineering. This shows what is the difference between biotechnology and biology. It has a completely new dimension of work and research to be carried. The underlying principle of genetic engineering is to alter or modify the genetic materials of a plant or living organism to get desirable traits. The base of foundation of genetic engineering is recombinant DNA. This technology focuses on changing the genes of the plant or living organism. The desirable trait is pushed into the host organism through recombinant DNA technology. The host exhibits the desirable traits phenotypically. 

Bioprocess Engineering: In the pharmaceutical industry, modern biotechnology is also responsible for making new advancements. This has helped in the production and storage of biochemicals like enzymes, proteins, fats, vaccines, etc. Biotechnology is also responsible for carrying out many cultural changes that take place in the bioreactors in sterile and optimum conditions. Bioprocess engineering is also responsible for getting a higher yield of products. This brings about a difference between biology and biotechnology. 

Did You Know?

Biofuels are renewable energy resources that are obtained by converting the biomasses into liquid fuels. These fuels help in meeting transportation needs and also reduce the carbon emissions from our environment. The process of extracting fuel is achieved with the help of biotechnology tools. When these fuels are used in the transport sectors, the biofuels are combined with other fuels like gasoline and diesel. Biotechnology has provided a reliable alternative source so that the natural resources are not depleted. 

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FAQs on Difference Between Biology and Biotechnology

Q1. What are Some of the Standard Applications of Biotechnology?

Answer: To know more about what is the difference between biotechnology and biology, one needs to have an idea about the applications of biotechnology. Some of the applications of Biotechnology are listed below.

  • Nutrients Supplementation: Biotechnology enables the addition of nutrients in the food. For instance, golden rice is developed from the infusion of beta carotene in rice. 

  • Industrial Use: It helps in the production of cosmetic products, detergents, alcohol, etc. There are various cellular structures and biological elements produced for different purposes. 

  • Healthcare: Biotechnology has a proven result in the field of pharmaceutical products. These products have shown problems related to purity when produced through conventional means. 

  • Abiotic Stress: The production of crops with the help of biotechnology was able to go through abiotic stress such as cold, drought, salinity, etc. This has proven beneficial to withstand harsh climatic conditions.

Q2. What is the Importance of Biotechnology?

Answer: Biotechnology has a pivotal role to play for the welfare of society and is constantly trying to upgrade human existence. The application of biotechnology has improved agricultural resources by enhancing the quality of food production and processing with bio-fertilizers and pesticides. New plant breeds are created with desirable traits and characteristics. In animal husbandry also transgenic animals were produced to get a good quality egg, meat, milk, etc. Biotechnology has also been effective in managing and controlling pollution in the environment. It implements processes like biomonitoring, bioremediation, biotreatment, and biodegradation. A similar approach is seen in the field of medicine. Biotechnology has produced various innovative methods to prevent, treat, and diagnose diseases in human beings. 

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