Botany is a subject related to the study of plants. This subject got increased importance in the field of science as plant growth and maintenance require more attention after various disturbances created in the natural ecosystem by human beings.
In this article, we shall be learning about important concepts related to Auxin and Gibberellin.
Plants contain chemical substances that are responsible for growth, development, reproduction, stress control, and many other related activities. These chemical substances are the plant hormones that have single molecules and exist in very moderate quantities. It is also known as phytohormone, which is an organic substance and not any form of active nutrients. Similar to human and animal hormones, it regulates different activities in the plant cell. These are produced in specific parts of the plants and carried to other parts where it evokes biochemical, psychological, and morphological responses. There are mainly five subclasses identified in phytohormones: auxins, gibberellins, cytokinin, abscisic acid, and ethylene.
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Auxins and Gibberellins are two major classes of the hormone, which are plant growth regulators. The plant growth regulators are the hormones that manage and control all the aspects related to the plant’s growth and development. Both these hormones impact growth within the plant and take care of the development processes like flowering, root initiation, organogenesis, sex expression, etc. The physiological reactions of auxins and gibberellins show various effects.
Auxin hormones are produced naturally and synthesized artificially within the plants. This hormone is obtained from the amino acid called tryptophan. The term auxin means to enlarge or grow. These are typically located at the growing apices’ roots, and later it migrates to other parts of the plants to stimulate growth. This hormone has a crucial role to play in the development of the plant.
Gibberellins are a variety of plant and fungal hormones which are acids by their chemical nature. These are a group of hormones that induces plant growth and development. Being a plant growth regulator, it looks after various processes like stem elongation, germination, flowering, enzyme induction, etc. Gibberellins have a dramatic effect on the growth that determines the height of a plant.
The plant hormone auxin can exist naturally, or it can also be processed synthetically. The naturally occurring auxins are indole ethanol, indole acetic acid, and indole acetaldehyde.
Synthetic auxins are sometimes used as growth inhibitors and are treated as a herbicide. It includes 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid indole butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid.
1. What are Cytokinins?
Cytokinins are the plant hormones that promote cell division and cell differentiation in the plant root and shoot system. These are mostly detected in all thorny plants, and other organisms like mosses, fungi, bacteria, and insects. The hormones are mainly produced at the meristem of the roots, and there are around 200 different varieties in both natural and synthetic forms. It might promote cell division, but also maintain the level of protein that is essential for mitosis. The process of mitosis helps to replace the damaged cells daily, which further promotes growth. So, it also promotes cell development and growth that affects apical dominance and leaf senescence.
2. What are some common uses of Gibberellins?
Gibberellins are commercially obtained from the fungi that facilitate the quick germination of seeds. Some plants also produce gibberellins, but the quantity is very little compared to the ones obtained from the fungi. It is useful for the farm owners of vineyards as it increases the harvest tremendously. This is because when the gibberellins molecules are sprayed in the vines, it raises the amount of sugar and water content in each fruit. It equally promotes the growth of dwarf species which can be developed quickly by applying gibberellins. In plants like cucumber, gibberellins produce the male flowers that are used to get pollen of desired characteristics.
3. What is Cotyledon?
Within the seed of a plant a cotyledon is a significant part of the embryo. This embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, one or more of which are the first to appear from a germinating seed. It supplies the nutrition a plant embryo needs to germinate, this over a period of time they become a photosynthetic organism and be a source of nutritional reserves themselves.
4. Are the botany concepts like Auxin, Ethene, and Gibberellin confusing and difficult to understand?
The level of difficulty of a topic depends on the students’ area of interest. Some may find it difficult whereas others will find it easy. However, the team of experts at Vedantu has attempted to simplify the topic in the best possible way. In the video lectures, the faculty make use of the basic ideas to help students easily get the concept. Additionally, the reading materials provided explain the topic in the most lucid language.
Thus, students should focus on learning and understanding the core of any topic and the process of reading and multiple revisions will automatically make all the topics look simpler to the students.
5. How important is the topic difference between auxin and gibberellin for the NEET exam?
If a student has analyzed the past year's papers of NEET they would have noticed that there are direct questions from this topic and other similar topics of botany. So, the students cannot skip the topic at any cost. Try to understand the topic conceptually and then try solving questions of NEET level from the sample questions made available on the website of Vedantu. The more you will solve the greater will be your confidence level.
6. What are the commercial uses of auxin and gibberellin?
These can be used on plants to maintain and enhance their growth. Some of their commercial uses are-
When auxin is applied on plants it stimulates plant growth, commercial farmers intensively use them to ensure profitable farming
Auxin is applied as a mixture with the rooting powder which restricts the root growth and helps the plant to grow taller.
Auxin is used as a weedicide to kill unwanted plant growths
Similarly, Gibberellin controls the dormancy of seeds which means that in normal conditions when the seeds could not germinate, the application of Gibberellin will help the seed to germinate. Thus more crops can be grown per year
Thus, it helps in the growth of larger fruits for commercial sell
Promotes horticulture business by inducing flowering.
Hence, their usage becomes essential.
7. What are the five major plant hormones and their uses?
Five major plant hormones which use are simply explained as follows -
Auxin - it enters into the plant cell and elongates them. Thus, helpful in plant growth
Gibberellin - also a growth hormone-like Auxin but its main focus is on the elongation of stems and fruits.
Cytokinin - It is responsible for the creation of new cells or cell division in plants. The branching of a plant is the result of Cytokinin.
Abscisic acid - It is a growth inhibitor that is they prevent growth from happening. Falling of leaves is an example of high abscisic acid
Ethylene - It is a chemical and its major job is the ripening of the fruit.
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