What is Deoxyribose?

Deoxyribose is a sugar, but not the kind we think about when we want to sweeten our coffee. A monosaccharide is a deoxyribose. Monosaccharides serve as the foundation for more complex sugars. The words 'mono' and 'saccharide' mean 'one' and 'sugar,' respectively.


2 Deoxyribose - Deoxyribose Sugar Formula

Deoxyribose is a part of DNA and is often referred to as 2-deoxyribose. A sugar is any molecule that ends in the letter 'ose.' C5H10O4 is the chemical formula for deoxyribose. The letters reflect the names of elements from the periodic table, and the numbers (presented in subscript) tell us how much of each of these elements make up a specific covalent bond. Deoxyribose is made up of 5 carbon atoms, 10 hydrogen atoms, and 4 oxygen atoms, according to the deoxyribose formula. Atoms are the essential chemical elements of life and can be found everywhere.


Monosaccharides, or basic sugars, are ribose and deoxyribose. They are aldopentoses that are phosphorylated to form deoxyribonucleotide and ribonucleotide, respectively. They play a crucial role in the creation of an organism's blueprint, which is passed down over generations.


Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids, and they aid in the transmission of genetic material. Ribose, which has five carbon atoms, is the pentose sugar for RNA. Deoxyribose is the pentose sugar for DNA.


Emil Fischer discovered ribose in the year 1891. Phoebus Levene discovered deoxyribose in 1929. Below are some structural IUPAC names, molar mass, chemical formula, and other variations between deoxyribose and ribose.


Deoxyribose Sugar Structure

The monosaccharide deoxyribose, or more specifically 2-deoxyribose, has the idealized formula H(C=O)(CH2)(CHOH)3H. Its name denotes that it is a deoxy sugar, meaning that it is created by removing an oxygen atom from the sugar ribose. Deoxyribose is most well-known for its use in DNA.


Ribose and Deoxyribose

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Following are the major difference between deoxyribose and ribose -

Difference Between Deoxyribose and Ribose

Deoxyribose

Ribose

Chemical Formula

C5H10O4

C5H10O5

IUPAC Name

2-deoxy-D-ribose

(2S,3R,4S,5R)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-2,3,4-triol

Structure

It has a hydroxyl (OH) group at position 2

It has a hydrogen (H) atom at position 2

Molar mass

134.13 g/mol

150.13 g/mol

Also Known as

2-deoxy-D-erythro-pentose

D-Ribose

Discovery

1929 by Phoebus Levene

1891 Emil Fischer

Found in

DNA

RNA


What is Deoxyribose?

Deoxyribose is an aldopentose sugar with an attached aldehyde group. This aids in the differentiation of ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acid by enzymes found in the living body.


Deoxyribose products play an essential role in biology. In all life forms, DNA is the primary source of genetic material. Adenine, thiamine, guanine, and cytosine are among the DNA nucleotides.


What is Ribose?

Ribose is a pentose sugar with an openly attached aldehyde group at the end of the chain. Ribonucleoside is made up of ribose sugar and a nitrogenous base. A ribonucleotide is formed when this ribonucleoside is bound to a phosphate group.


It's a monosaccharide with one oxygen atom attached to each carbon atom. The ribose sugar can be present in living organisms' RNA. RNA is in charge of encoding and decoding genetic material.


Deoxyribose Structure

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Deoxyribose may exist as a five- or six-membered ring or as a linear molecule on its own. Since it is a five-carbon molecule with a carbonyl group at the end, deoxyribose is referred to as an aldopentose. It appears as deoxyribofuranose, or a five-membered ring, in the image above.

Deoxyribose can act as the backbone of DNA by substituting a phosphate group and a nucleic acid base on this ring, as shown in the diagram below.


Deoxyribose Function

Deoxyribose is a five-membered ring found in DNA. Deoxyribose has lost an oxygen molecule from one of the carbons in the ring, as seen in the diagram. Although this may seem to be a minor improvement, it has a significant impact on DNA's resistance to hydrolysis. With the extra oxygen, RNA can interact with water molecules more effectively. The phosphodiester bonds that connect ribose molecules can be hydrolyzed as a result of this. The phosphodiester bonds that connect deoxyribose molecules naturally interact with waterless and break down less through hydrolysis. This allows DNA molecules to be passed down through generations with only small modifications.


To distinguish between the carbons in deoxyribose, the carbons are numbered with primes. The carbon that will be bound to the nitrogenous (nucleic acid) base is the 1' carbon (also known as "the one prime carbon"). The 5' carbon will be on the ring's opposite side and will not be part of the ring's structure. The phosphate group is linked to the 5' carbon. As seen in the diagram, this phosphate group will then bind to the 3' carbon of the nucleotide above it. The covalently bonded backbone of DNA is formed as a result of this. Though not seen, DNA is made up of two strands that complement each other and have deoxyribose backbones. The backbones are held together by hydrogen bonds formed by pyrimidines and purines interacting with one another. Enzymes sever these hydrogen bonds during replication to create new DNA strands that complement each side of the parent strand. Until being deoxygenated into deoxyribose bases, new ribose molecules are bound to nitrogenous bases and phosphate classes. The nucleotides can then be attached to the growing base string, forming an independent DNA molecule.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1 - Why Deoxyribose for DNA and Ribose for RNA?

Ans - Deoxyribose is an aldopentose sugar with an attached aldehyde group. This aids in the differentiation of ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acid by enzymes found in the living body. Ribose is a pentose sugar with an openly attached aldehyde group at the end of the chain. Ribonucleoside is made up of ribose sugar and a nitrogenous base. A ribonucleotide is formed when this ribonucleoside is bound to a phosphate group.


DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the foundation of life on Earth; DNA serves as the genetic backbone of all recognized living organisms. DNA is so valuable to eukaryotes that it is retained in the nucleus of the cell, where it is copied but never extracted because it never leaves the protection of the nucleus. All cell activity is guided by DNA, which delegated to RNA. RNA (ribonucleic acid) serves a variety of biological functions including gene coding, encoding, regulation, and expression. RNA transports signals from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.


Ribose sugar is a key component of both DNA and RNA's chemical structures. The ribose sugar used in DNA is deoxyribose, while RNA uses unmodified ribose sugar also known as pentose sugar in RNA.

Q2 - Explain the difference between the Structure of Ribose and Deoxyribose?

Ans - Ribose and Deoxyribose are two types of simple sugars or monosaccharides found in living organisms. They are extremely important biologically because they aid in the formation of the organism's blueprint, which is then passed down over generations. Any shift in the blueprint in one generation of a species manifests itself in the next generation as physical or evolutionary changes. However, there are some slight but important variations between ribose and deoxyribose.