Controlled Pollination Emasculation Tagging and Bagging

How to Control Pollination Through Emasculation Tagging and Bagging?

Tagging and Bagging

Aim: To control pollination through emasculation, tagging, and bagging.

Materials Required:

  • Plants with large bisexual flowers

  • Tweezers

  • Scissors

  • Brush

  • Alcohol 

  • Rubber bands

  • Paper bags

  • Paper clips

  • Tags

  • Magnifying Glass

Theory

Emasculation is defined as the process of artificial hybridization in which female flowers' stamens are separated from bisexual flowers in order to avoid self-fertilization. Much before the anthers mature, this process takes place. Emasculation is the method of extracting anthers from bisexual flowers before they mature. After that, the emasculated flower is bagged to keep any unwanted pollination.

This method aids in the development of flowers that have the desired characteristics. It is essential to have knowledge of flower structure, fertilization, flower physiology, and fertilization for this.


Procedure to Controlled Pollination Emasculation Tagging and Bagging:

  1. Choose a flower bud and open it to extract the stamens. This is referred to as emasculation. It is the female parent vine, so make a note of it.

  2. The plant is then wrapped in a plastic bag to keep unwanted pollen from pollinating it.

  3. Bring it in contact with the anther of a male plant that has the desired traits. The pollen should be dusted on the stigma's surface.

  4. Cover the pollinated flower with a polythene bag and mark it with the seed parent's name as soon as possible.

Pollination 

Pollination is a plant reproduction process in which pollen grains are transferred from the anther to the stigma. There are two forms of pollination:

  • Cross-pollination

  • Self-pollination

Pollen and stigma must be compatible for pollination to be effective. Pollen grains can be rejected due to incompatibility. This is unfavourable, especially in commercial crop production. Artificial hybridization was established as a result.


Artificial Hybridization

For successful pollination and fertilization, pollen-stigma compatibility is important. When compatible pollen is accepted by the pistil, fertilization events begin, while incompatible pollen is rejected. The ability of a pistil to recognize its pollen is the product of long-term pollen-pistil interaction as well as chemicals released by pollen.


Steps in Artificial Hybridization

Hybridization proceeds in two steps:

  • Emasculation

  • Bagging

Emasculation

A hybridization is a form of selective breeding, as we all know. Anthers must be removed from a bisexual flower before pollen grains can be released. Emasculation is the process of removing an Anther with forceps. This phase is not expected in the case of unisexual flowers.

Bagging

Bagging is an essential component of all pollination operations. Until anthesis, the female (receptive) flowers must be protected to protect the stigma from contamination before the desired pollen can be added. Usually, the bag is made of semi-transparent treated paper. By securing the bag over the shoot's tip, the flowers can be secured. To make the bags more comfortable, they must be tightly fitted and fixed.

Bagging is a way of shielding emasculated flowers from unwanted pollen grains. Despite the fact that the flower is obscured by a bag, it achieves receptivity. Bagging is performed before the flowers open in unisexual flowers.

The female flower is absolutely covered from contamination thanks to emasculation and bagging.

The desired pollens are dusted on the stigma once the flower has achieved stigma receptivity. This has been resealed in preparation for future developments.

As a result, artificial hybridization ensures that the correct form of pollen is transferred to the flower's stigma. Furthermore, there is a fair possibility of fertilization. This method allows for the production of a wide range of crop strains while also improving the quality of crops with desirable characters.


Emasculation & Bagging Techniques to Achieve Artificial Hybridization

  • Emasculation – Emasculation is the process of artificial hybridization where the pollen and anthers of the flower are separated to prevent self-pollination.

  • Bagging – Bagging involves covering the emasculated flower with a bag to prevent pollinating agents from reaching it.

The stigma of emasculated flowers can be dusted with pollen of the desired kind.

Artificial hybridization is therefore possible.


Control Pollination

Control-pollination is a plant enhancement technique that produces progeny with genes from each of two established parent plants. Transferring pollen from one plant to the receptive female reproductive organs of another plant while removing all other pollen is known as control pollination.

Control-pollination is necessary to:

  • To establish and maintain a pedigreed breeding population, control pollination is required.

  • In order to control inbreeding in the breeding population

  • Hybridization and back-cross between species must be done.

Control-pollination techniques are specifically engineered and managed to generate seed with greater genetic trait and genetic uniformity than naturally pollinated seeds, as well as eliminating pollen contamination issues.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Explain the Brief Advantages of Utilizing a Bag Containing Minute Pores?

Ans - The major benefits of using a bag containing minute pores are referred to as a Bagging technique.

Explanation:

  • In order to achieve desirable pollination, a bag with minute pores is used. Gas will enter the bag through the pores.

  • As a result, gaseous exchange will occur, allowing the flowers to breathe and photosynthesis.

  • The container, on the other hand, holds pollen grains out of touch with the herb, which is undesirable.

  • As a result, there is no fertilization and the plant is sprayed with pollen from a desirable plant. This process is referred to as the bagging technique.

2. Why is Emasculation Performed Before Anthesis? Complete the Following Sentence: Emasculation is the Removal of Anther, it is Required in the Process of……….

Ans - This necessitates an understanding of flower anatomy, pollination mechanisms, fertilization, and flowering physiology. The stamens are removed before anthesis to acquire a female parent, and pollen from the desired male parent is transferred to its stigma in the emasculation technique.


Emasculation is an artificial hybridization process in which female flowers' stamens are separated from bisexual flowers to avoid self-fertilization. Much before the anthers mature, this process takes place. The method of extracting anthers from bisexual flowers before they mature is known as emasculation. After that, the emasculated flower is bagged to avoid pollination. Emasculation is the method of separating the anthers from a bisexual flower before anthesis or bud opening. In order to allow selective hybridization, emasculation is needed to prevent self-pollination in a bisexual flower. After that, the emasculated flower is bagged to ensure that pollen from other sources does not fertilize the egg. Only female flowers are bagged in the case of unisexual flowers to allow selective hybridization.