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Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

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Definition of Central Dogma

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A Central Dogma describes how DNA is converted to RNA and then into Proteins in Molecular Biology. A genomic process refers to the conversion of DNA information into a functional product.


RNA serves as a messenger to carry information through the Ribosomes as DNA provides instructions for making Proteins.


The Central Dogma is the biological process that transfers Genetic information from DNA to RNA, and then into Proteins.


What is the Central Dogma?

A Central Dogma is an explanation of the flow of Genetic information in a cell, including the replication of the DNA, the transcription of the RNA, and the translation of the RNA to create the Proteins.


It is possible to understand the concept of interaction through the framework. For example, biopolymers are common. Biopolymers are primarily composed of Proteins, RNA, and DNA, which can further be divided into general and unknown transfers.


In the laboratory, special transfers are made in exceptional cases. Cells are generally transferred by general means. Information is constantly flowing through transcription and translation in the human body. It is believed that unknown transfers never occur.


As a result, two new strands of DNA are created, one strand from the parent DNA and one from the newly synthesized DNA. This is called semiconservative DNA replication.


Steps of the Central Dogma

The central dogma takes place in two tages:

1. Transcription

The enzyme RNA Polymerase transfers information from one strand of DNA to another strand of RNA during transcription. Three parts of the DNA strand are involved in this process: the promoter, the structural gene, and the terminator.


DNA strands that synthesize RNA are called template strands, and DNA strands that Code for RNA are called coding strands. RNA polymerases that are DNA-dependent bind to the promoter and catalyze the 3' to 5' directions of polymerization.


The newly synthesized RNA strand is released from the terminator sequence as it approaches the terminator. RNA strands released after transcription undergo further modifications post-transcriptionally.


2. Translation

Proteins are enCoded by RNA by a process called translation. Translation involves energy and is an active process. The energy comes from the charged tRNA Molecules.


The translation process is initiated by ribosomes. Ribosomes are made up of two subunits, one larger and one smaller. As a result, the larger subunit consists of two tRNA Molecules positioned together so that enough energy can be expended to form a peptide bond. 


The mRNA enters the smaller subunit and is then held by the tRNA Molecules present in the larger subunit that are complementary to the codon. In this way, two codons are held together by two tRNA Molecules placed close together and a peptide bond is formed between them. This process results in long polypeptide chains of amino acids.


Genetic Code

Proteins are manufactured from RNA and their Genetic Code contains information about them. In general, three nucleotides and four nitrogenous bases collectively Code for an amino acid, forming a triplet codon. As a result, there are 64 amino acids possible, including 4 x 4 x 4 amino acids. There are 20 amino acids found naturally.


As a result, the Genetic Code deteriorates. Due to the characteristics of the Genetic Code, some amino acids are enCoded by more than one codon at a time, causing the amino acid to degenerate. There is only one codon for each amino acid and the Code is universal regardless of the organism.


In total, there are 64 codons, of which three are stop codons that end transcription and one is an initiator codon, i.e. AUG, which Codes for methionine.

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FAQs on Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

1. What are the three key elements of Central Dogma in Molecular Biology?

Cells use replication, transcription, and translation to maintain their Genetic information, which entails converting DNA-enCoded Genetic information into gene products such as RNA or Proteins, depending on the genes.

2. Do you know where Central Dogma takes place?

It is referred to as the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology. Transcription and translation are the two processes involved. The transcription process occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. A messenger RNA Molecule (mRNA) is made by using DNA as a template.

3. Which two exceptions exist to the Central Dogma?

There are exceptions to the Central Dogma. 

1. RNA Molecules are not translated into Proteins by many genes and don't function as mRNAs. 

2. Information is sometimes flown the other way around. (RNA -> DNA). 

4. What are the Key Terms Involved with the Process?

  • DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid is the full form of DNA. A Genetic Code is carried by this Molecule.

  • mRNA RNA is Ribonucleic acid and mRNA is messenger RNA. In any Protein product, mRNA enCodes chemical information.

  • Ribosome In a cell, ribosomes are macroMolecules that synthesize Proteins. 

  • Codon In Protein synthesis, an amino acid is Coded by a sequence of three RNA or DNA nucleotides. 

5. What is the purpose of replication in Central Dogma?

During the process of replication, DNA must be duplicated before a cell can divide. In each daughter cell, the DNA is replicated, allowing its chromosomes to be fully present.

6. What is Central Dogma?

The Central Dogma is a mechanism of genetic Biology that transcripts genetic message from DNA to RNA and translate those from RNA to Protein.

7. What do you mean by Central Dogma?

Central Dogma refers to a biological mechanism that includes both transcription and translation of genetic information. In this process, the genetic message is encoded in DNA transfer to mRNA in a unidirectional way by transcription, and Protein synthesis occurs through translation.

8. What is the Central Dogma of molecular Biology?

The Central Dogma of molecular Biology refers to the genetic message transferring process between DNA to RNA Molecule and RNA to a Protein Molecule.

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