It is a kind of symptom that is developed in some patients with schizophrenia. It shows a phase in which an individual moves very little and does not respond to instructions and in extreme condition, one may demonstrate motor activity that is considered “excessive” and “peculiar,” such as echolalia (mimicking sounds) or Echopraxia (mimicking movements) which is called as catatonic excitement.
In this state one is not able to differentiate between what is real or what is fake and this stage is called psychosis. This disease affects a person in a very extreme way like that individual might stay still or mute, or might be hyperactive for no reason.
Facts Regarding Catatonic Schizophrenia
Some of the common facts regarding schizophrenia are given below:
A. It mainly happens to those suffering from schizophrenia.
B. Common symptoms of this disease are flipping between hyperactivity and under activity.
C. Common risk factors of the catatonic disease are the same as those for schizophrenia in general.
Symptoms of Catatonic Schizophrenia
Some of the common symptoms of this mental illness are listed below:
Stupor – This means the individual has no psychomotor activity, no interaction with the environment
Catalepsy – This symptom includes adopting or performing unusual postures.
Waxy Flexibility – Under this condition, the individual will not change his/her arm position unless changed by someone, they will remain in the same position till it is moved again.
Mutism – Such individuals show only limited verbal responses.
Negativism – Individuals show very little or no response to instructions or external stimuli.
Posturing – In this condition, individuals will be actively holding a posture against gravity.
Mannerism – Performing or carrying out odd, exaggerated actions
Stereotypy – Showing or performing repetitive movements without an apparent reason
Agitation – for no known reason
Echolalia – mimicking another person’s speech
Echopraxia – mimicking another person’s movements
Risk of Catatonic Schizophrenia
Genetics – If in a family anyone is suffering from schizophrenia than in that case individuals have the risk of developing it themselves.
Viral Infection – In early age cases like in children, it may also develop from viral infection.
Fetal Malnutrition – If during pregnancy stage one is not fed with proper nutrition, the foetus has chances of developing schizophrenia.
Stress during Early Life – One of the common causes of developing schizophrenia is stress in life.
Childhood abuse or Trauma - It can also be a reason behind developing schizophrenia.
Age of Parents at Birth – Individuals older in age have a higher risk of having children who develop schizophrenia.
Drugs – Consuming drugs that affect the mind during adolescence may increase the risk of developing schizophrenia.
Diagnosis of Catatonic Schizophrenia
Methods by which catatonic schizophrenia can be diagnosed are:
A. Physical Exam – By proper examination of the patient's height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature. The doctor will listen to the heart and lungs and check the abdomen.
B. CBC (complete blood count) – Counting of blood is done to check for alcohol and drugs, as well as thyroid function of the body.
C. MRI or CT Scan – The aim behind performing this checkup is to look for any abnormalities in brain structure.
D. EEG (electroencephalogram) – To check for brain function.
E. Psychological Evaluation – In this process, a psychiatrist will ask the patient (if possible) about their thoughts, feelings, and behaviour patterns. They will also be asked about the symptoms, when they started, how severe they are, and how they affect the patient’s life. They will also ask whether the patient has thoughts about harming themselves or others.