At the tips of the leafy gametophytes, multicellular gametangia are formed. The female gametangia are known as archegonia while male gametangia are known as antheridia. The female gametangia may be developed on the same gametophyte as the antheridia or it may be developed on the separate plants. In the swollen lower part of archegonium, a single egg is produced while in an antheridium, numerous sperms are produced. The sperms are released from the antheridium and then, they swim with the help of flagella to the archegonia. This is mediated by the presence of dew or rainwater. The haploid sperm unites with a haploid egg and ultimately forms a diploid zygote.
Mosses are the most abundant plants in the Arctic and the Antarctic area. They are only the largest number of individuals and the largest number of species in these harsh regions. Even though drought-like conditions are not so common in deserts, many mosses are capable of withstanding prolonged periods of drought. Most of the mosses are quite sensitive to the pollution present in the air, and hence, they are not present in abundance in or near cities or the areas with the high levels of air pollution.
The mosses of peat are known as sphagnum. They are very valuable commercially as a soil conditioner. It is possible due to their capability of absorbing a high amount of water. They absorb majorly up to 25 times their weight in water. They are also useful as fuel when they are in a dry condition.