Botanical Names

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Introduction to Botanical Names

Scientific names are given to each organism whether it be a plant, algae, fungi, or an extinct known as Botanical name. There are innumerable species on earth and we are surrounded by all such kinds of species. We identify all the living entities by their common names and these common names vary from region to region but there is one unique name for all living things which is called the botanical name. The main purpose behind giving unique botanical names to each living thing is to avoid confusion or misidentification between two living entities having similar names.


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Concept Used During Writing Botanical Name

Let’s consider the botanical name of mango is Mangifera Indica. Botanical name mainly consists of two words one is the genus and the other is species, the name of the species is always unique in the botanical name. 

The biological classification of an organism is a process by which the living organisms are categorized, on the basis of different groups and subgroups and further, these groups and subgroups are based on similarities and dissimilarities present in an organism. Depending on this basis, organisms are placed in different hierarchies of different categories. 


Factors Which are Necessary While Writing Biological Name

Biological names are written following so many rules, which should be followed to get the unique biological name of an organism. Biological names help us in identifying any plant among vast varieties of plants by setting the features of the plant on the basis of their size, habitat, nutrition and various other notifying processes. 

Some of the objective behind biological classification are:

1. All the organisms are arranged on the basis of their similarities and dissimilarities. 

2. Behind biological classification there is a phylogenetic system that indicates the origin and evolution of the species. 

3. With the help of biological classification it is easy to identify organisms.


Common Plant Names with their Unique Botanical Names

Some of the botanical names examples are given below:

Apple

Malus domestica

Bamboo

Bamboosa aridinarifolia

Banana

Musa paradisiaca

Banyan

Ficus benghalensis

Black Gram

Plasoes mungo

Black Pepper

Piper nigrum

Brinjal

Solanum melongena

Capsicum

Capsicum frutescens

Carrot

Daucas carota

Clove

Syzygium aromaticum


Different Types of Classification

There are mainly three types of classification:

1. Artificial System of Classification

In the artificial system of classification, morphological features of an organism are taken into consideration for grouping organisms in a different category, but few of them use the habit and habitat of an organism. As per Aristotle law, animals are divided into two categories like enaima ( animal having red blood cell ) and anima ( animals without red blood cells ). The classification of organisms is further based on habitats like aquatic organism (e.g: fish ), terrestrial organism ( e.g: reptiles ), aerial organism i.e. ones who live in the air (e.g: birds, bats). 

2. The Natural System of Classification

In the natural system of classification, a number of resembling characters are considered like many similarities and dissimilarities present in an organism. This would help to set up relations between different organisms. In this system of classification, we mainly consider morphological features, anatomical features, cytological features, reproductive features, etc which is used to classify organisms. 

For example, you can consider the biological classification of birds. Which are classified on the basis of the presence of wings, feathers and their pneumatic bone, whereas mammals are classified on the basis of the presence of reproductive ability.

3. Phylogenetic Classification

In phylogenetic classification, the evolutionary relationship of an organism is taken, which is known as a phylogenetic relationship, which is used to classify organisms into different categories. The phylogenetic system was proposed by Engler and Prantl (1887-99) zoologists who believed that similarity in structure represents a close evolutionary relationship. And their natural classification represents evolutionary and phylogenetic classification. 


Uses of Unique Botanical Names 

It is a scientific process, where plants, animals, and living entities are named based on a Latin word. Botanical names have many advantages, some of them are mentioned below. 

  • Classification and organisation of entities are comprehensively organised which makes understanding and studying characteristics of particular entities easy and organized.

  • Scientific names are unique, all the living entities will have one unique name, which avoids confusion. 

  • These names are accepted universally and it is standardised. 

  • In future, if species are transferred to other genera, on the basis of recent research. The botanical names will be retained 

  • Botanical names will help to understand the similarities between various species, which belong to the same genera and it is also helpful to build an association between the two species. 

Do You Know?

Which character is least similar? The similar characters of the categories go on decreasing from the lowest rank to the highest rank in the taxonomic hierarchy. The categories are family, class, genus, and species. As class being the highest category possesses the least similar characters.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Write the Importance of Botanical Names of Plants?

Ans. On earth, there are innumerable plant species, so it's impossible to recognise them without giving them specific names. So the main aim behind botanical names of plants is to avoid confusion or misidentification. In botanical names, we also use the name of that person who discovered that particular plant. 

2. Write Three Different Types of Classification?

Ans. There are mainly three types of classification:  Artificial system of classification, Natural system of classification, and Phylogenetic classification.

3. How are Botanical Names Decided?

Ans. The botanical name is known as the Latin or scientific names of the plant consisting of the genus and specific species. Botanical names have been decided because local names keep on changing from place to place so they have made standardization known as scientific names or Botanical names. Botanical names have been accepted all over the world.