Just like the species of plants, the sugarcane botanical name was also given. Saccharum officinarum is the botanical name for sugarcane. Sugarcane is a grass plant that is in the Saccharum genus and the Poaceae family. It has been believed to have come from New Guinea and been planted in both the subtropical and tropical parts of the country. The plant is also grown for biofuel production, particularly in Brazil, because the canes can be directly used to produce ethyl alcohol (ethanol).
S.officinarum produces about 70 percent of the world's sugar. Saccharum sinense, the Saccharum spontaneum, and the Saccharum Barberi are several other sugarcane botanical names for the three different varieties. This plant does have several other applications, in addition to the manufacture of sugar, such as the manufacture of ethanol, bio-plastics, and fertilizers. It is also used in livestock farming. Sugarcane products include rum, bagasse, and molasses.
The sugarcane plant grows stalks that can reach 3 to 7 metres (10 to 24 feet) in height and have long sword-shaped leaves. The stalks are made up of many segments, with a bud at each joint. When the cane matures, a growing point at the top of the stalk transforms into a slender arrow with a tassel of tiny flowers.
Sugarcane is a tropical and subtropical crop that thrives in hot, humid environments. Sugarcane cultivation is limited to 30° North and south latitudes. Tropical Asia, Mexico, and South America, Africa, South-western Europe, temperate Asia, the Pacific, Southeastern USA, Australia, are cultivating sugar cane. It was grown after 6000 BC in New Guinea and eventually spread across the human migratory routes to Asia and the Indian subcontinent from around 1000 BC on.
The following are the major sugarcane producing countries:
Brazil produced 324 million tonnes of sugarcane in 1996-97, accounting for 27% of global output. Sugarcane agriculture covers over 4.8 million hectares of land.
India produced over 255 million tonnes in 1996, accounting for 21% of global output. Sugarcane covers around 3.9 million hectares.
The country produced 55-6 million tonnes of sugarcane in 1996, accounting for about 5% of global output. Sugarcane agriculture covers approximately 1.05 million hectares.
Cuba was the sixth-largest sugarcane producer in the world in 1996. It produced 40 million tonnes, accounting for approximately 3.4 percent of global output. A total of 1.5 million hectares were under cultivation.
Cuttings in different sizes from top parts of the older canes propagate the sugar cane. These seeds (cuttings) are situated in trenches and almost buried by soil. Within two weeks they will start to sprout. Every bud sprouts and develops a primary shoot under ideal conditions. The seed is harvested after germination from 10 to 20 months.
The stalks are chopped near the ground since the lower level of the sugarcane has the highest sugar content. Typically, rhizomes produce two or three more plants, referred to as ratoons until more plantation is required. The canes are transported by rail or another usable mode of transportation to the sugar factories.
At densities of 10,000 to 25,000 per hectare, seed cane is spaced 1.4 to 1.8 metres (4.5 to 6 ft) apart (4,000 to 10,000 per acre). Each bud germinates and forms a primary shoot under ideal conditions. Each juvenile shoot develops its root system, with root bands close to each bud producing a vast number of roots.
Tillering, or sprouting, occurs at the plant's base, and each seed cane spreads into several developing canes, making a stool. The plant crop is grown on these stools.
When the cane is harvested, a piece of the stalk is left underground to produce a subsequent growth of cane, known as the ratoon or stubble crop. The technique is frequently performed three times, yielding three profitable crops from a single planting.
During the growing season, sugarcane requires 2,000 to 2,300 mm (80 to 90 inches) of water. Irrigation, either through spraying or placing water in furrows, can compensate for a lack of precipitation. Withholding water and maintaining a colder temperature both aid in the development of cane. Harvesting and milling take place during the year's dry, rather cool season and last for about five to six months.
Sugarcane is fertilized from planting until the end of the growth cycle, but not during the ripening period.
Weeds in the cane fields must be addressed until the cane stools create a good canopy, which inhibits weed growth, to ensure a decent crop. Herbicides containing chemicals are extensively utilized. Both human and automated harvesting methods are used to collect mature cane.
Sugarcane is cultivated in many types of soils, like red volcanic and river alluvial soils. The perfect soil is a combination of the organic matter of sand, silt, and clay particles. The field is ploughed then left for quite a while before subsoiling takes place (stirring the subsoil). The crop requires well-drained soil and drains to be generated – on the floor, under the ground, or at the end – depending on the field topography.
Sugarcane breeding has the objective of creating new hybrid varieties that are tolerant or resilient to diseases and pests of insects, and of improving the sugar production per unit, the yield of greater sugar levels, and the standards of production. Many of the initial noble canes have been prone to some severe diseases, but their ruggedness has increased. Wild cane S. spontaneum, for example, absorbs minimal sugar, is resistant to so many diseases, and has been commonly used by breeders to boost commercial varieties.
The first-ever step of breeding would be to get new seeds of cane by sexually exchanging selected parents and then picking them from the new seeds. Two flower cans of two caned types, chosen as male and female parents, shall be enclosed in a tube lantern. The better varieties on the market are not inherently perfect parents. Several of the best varieties were grown by non-commercial parents which is not ideal for use.
In tropical and subtropical regions, sugarcane is best cultivated because plants need a mild, sunny and humid climate. In situations where no frost is observed that will harm plants, crops are optimally planted at temperatures about 26 and 33 °C (78.8 – 91.4o F). Sugarcane could be cultivated successfully in various soils but is optimally produced in dense, well-drained soils that are rich in nutrients with a pH range from 5.0 to 8.0. For adequate output, sugar cane demands annual average precipitation of 1800 to 2500 mm every year. If the precipitation is far too little, crops with irrigation should be cultivated to increase yield.
Sugar cane is a commodity for white sugar extraction. Sugarcane covers a wide variety of industries such as sugar mills which produce processed sugar, liquor ethanol distilleries, and millions of manufacturing units for jaggery. Sugarcane provides sugarcane juice which is a refreshing cocktail. Ethyl alcohol is provided by molasses as raw material.
Sugarcane supplies glucose to the body, which is required for muscles to generate natural strength
Sugarcane is also recommended for persons suffering from fever, which promotes protein loss in the body. During febrile diseases, sugarcane eating gives protein to the body.
Sugarcane juice extract's easily digestible sugar helps in jaundice recovery.
It contains a variety of compounds, in addition to sucrose, that aid in wound healing and immune system stimulation.
Medicinally, a sugar cane was also used. In South Asia, a wide range of health issues from indigestion to nicotine have been treated and externally further used to reduce inflammation. In Ayurvedic medicine, roots, as well as stems, have been used to cure diseases of the skin and also the urinary tract, including in the case of bronchitis, heart condition, development failure of milk, cough, and anemia. Some transcripts have recommended its use with jaundice and low blood pressure. The paste was commonly used for the treatment of wounds and for helping recovery.
Sugarcane is a sugar crop of economic importance. The sugar cane produces sucrose that builds up in the internodes of the stalk. Sucrose, which is mined and purified at specialist mill facilities, is used in human food industries as the raw material or fermented for ethanol processing.
A plant stem juice is used to manufacture sugar and molasses. Stem juice is helpful for appetite for weakness, leprosy, bowel disorder, anemia, and diarrhoea. Molasses are made from industrial ethyl alcohol. Molasses are commonly used as food for stocks. The tops of cane are served to livestock. Bagasse, the fibrous remaining after the sugar cane juice is drained and is utilized by using it for the production of, wallboard, fiberboard, paper, and card boarding.
1. What are the ideal sugarcane growing conditions?
Sugarcane thrives in soil with a pH range of 5.5 to 6.5. Sugar cane, as a member of the grass family, is a heavy feeder that thrives on nitrogen-rich fertilizers like a conventional grass fertilizer. It grows best in direct sunlight and goes dormant in the winter.
2. How often is sugar cane harvested each year?
Two to 10 harvests are typical, depending on the type of farming. In areas like North America, where mechanized agriculture is employed to obtain large yields in broad fields, sugarcanes are replanted after two or three harvests.
3. Is moist soil good for sugar cane?
Sugar cane requires consistent moisture, but it will not function well if it becomes too wet or becomes waterlogged for an extended length of time. Maintain moist but not soggy soil, particularly after planting and until the sugar cane shoots break through the ground.
4. What are sugarcane seed setts?
The cane is chopped into setts, which are chunks or parts of the cane. An immature cane will be used to make the setts. Seed pieces or setts are the planting materials. The real sugarcane seed is inappropriate for commercial crop production.
5. On Vedantu, where can students get multiple-choice questions about sugarcane?
Practicing from standard textbook questions is insufficient when preparing for competitive exams, especially where students must attempt multiple-choice questions. To help students ace the exam, Vedantu has professionally designed questions around handpicked topics in Biology, such as Sugarcane.
6. Where Did Sugarcane Originate First?
Sugar cane originally emerged in New Guinea and was carried from there on the second voyage in 1493 via explorer Christopher Columbus to America. Nowadays, sugarcane is cultivated mostly in tropical regions as well as in some subtropical regions in many more than 70 countries. The world's cane sugar is about half produced in India and Brazil.
7. Where Did the First Production of Sugar From Sugarcane Take Place?
In southeastern Asia and the Pacific, sugar cane was initially cultivated only for chewing purposes. Rind was being separated and the inner tissues were swallowed or chewed. Sugar was produced in India first, probably during the first millennium BC by cane juice which was boiled.