The term ecosystem was coined by A.G Tansley, an English botanist in 1935. It is known as both structural and functional units of the environment where both biotic and abiotic factors interact with each other to form a complete ecosystem. Thus we can say that ecosystems are made up of two components: they are biotic factors and abiotic factors and both these factors are equally important to maintain stability in the ecosystem.
All living beings present in an ecosystem are known as biotic components whereas non living components are known as abiotic components like physical conditions (temperature, humidity,salinity, sunlight, pH, etc). Interaction of both biotic and abiotic components are necessary to stability and chain linkage of the ecosystem and both of them are interdependent on each other for easy survival. Due to this reason only extinction on any one component leads to imbalance in the whole ecosystem.
The term biotic is made up of two terms: “bio” means living organism and “ic” means like, thus combined they are known as living organisms. Therefore it can also be defined as all living organisms present on earth are known as biotic components.
Example: plants, animals, human beings, decomposers, yeast, insects, etc. All these biotic components interact to develop new generations i.e to reproduce new organisms to maintain stability in the food chain.
Examples of Biotic Factors:
As biotic factors are in living form so there examples are also in living form. Some of the examples of biotic factors are listed below.
A. Producers: are the organism which can make their own food by photosynthesis process. Like: plants, algae, bacteria.
B. They obtain their source of energy from abiotic factors like sunlight, humidity, water, etc. As all these factors are important for proper synthesis of food.
C. Chlorophyll present in procedure and they absorb all these abiotic factors for synthesis of food. Part of synthesized food is utilised by producers only for their proper functioning and growth.
A. Organisms that feed on producers are known as consumers.
B. Consumers are further divided into three or more types.
1. Primary Consumers: One who directly feeds on procedures are primary consumers. Example: cow, goat, etc.
2. Secondary consumers: Consumers one who feed on primary consumers are known as secondary consumers. Example: lion, tiger, etc.
A. Living organism one who break dead bodies of plants and animals are known as decomposers.
B. They are heterotrophic in nature.
C. Example: fungi, bacteria, etc.
D. Decomposers secrete enzymes of decaying process due to this reason they are known as reducers.
A. An Organism who feeds on dead and decaying organisms are known as detritivores.
B. They get the least amount of energy after feeding.
Nonliving parts of an ecosystem are termed as abiotic factors. They play a crucial role in shaping ecosystems as both biotic and abiotic factors interaction is must for stability of the ecosystem.
Examples of Abiotic Factors:
Most of the common examples of abiotic factors are air, weather, water, temperature, humidity, altitude, pH, level of soil, types of soil and more, water flow rate, water depth, etc.
Abiotic examples in an terrestrial ecosystem, aquatic ecosystem, desert ecosystem, water salinity, etc.
Energy Flow In Ecosystem:
A. Energy flow from one trophic level to another trophic level is termed as energy flow and this flow of energy is always unidirectional in nature. This means flow of energy takes place in sequential order i.e from producers------primary consumers------- secondary Consumers-----decomposers------detritus. Due to this reason energy cannot be reversed back.
B. At the end of energy flow it gets converted into minerals and that can be used again and again.
C. Only 10% of total energy is used at each trophic level. Due to this Autotrophic organism gets the highest amount of energy in comparison to heterotrophs, decomposers, etc. As they directly feed on producers. This 10% law was given by Lindeman (1942 ).
Difference Between Biotic And Abiotic Components: