Binary Fission in Amoeba and Budding in Yeast

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Binary Fission in Amoeba:

Introduction:

Reproduction is a biological process to produce species of its own kind to maintain the continuity of species generation after generation. Further reproduction process also depends on organism to organism. As for all unicellular organisms, cell division, or fission, leads to the creation of new individuals. Binary fission is a kind of cell division process in eukaryotes whereas in prokaryotes it is a kind of asexual reproduction. Binary fission also involves various steps like a higher organism, as bacterial cells also need to copy their DNA; they have multiple linear rods like chromosomes enclosed in a membrane-bound nucleus, bacterial cells. This process generally occurs when the environment condition is most favourable.


Amoeba:

Amoeba is a single-celled eukaryotic organism that catches food and moves out by extending a fingerlike projection of protoplasm. Amoeba is either free-living in damp environments or parasitic. Shape of Amoeba is irregular and can be changed according to time and situation.


Classification of Amoeba:

  • Kingdom: Protozoa

  • Class: Tubulinea

  • Family: Amoebidae

  • Order: TubulinIndia 

  • Genus: Amoeba

Amoeba is extremely diverse in nature so they reproduce using varieties of different modes such as binary fission, spore formation and even sexually.


Most commonly amoeba  undergoes asexual reproduction throuhg binary fission under this reproduction process parent cell divides into two new daughter cells and during this process both duplication and division of genetic material of parent cell occurs and each daughter cell receive sigle copy of parent genetic material. As binary fission is a primitive reproduction process in prokaryotes, all resulting daughter cells are genetically identical to each other and parent cell,  there is no spindle apparatus formation in the cell during this type of reproduction process.


Binary fission in amoeba happens through various steps, they are:


1. Replication of DNA: Under this process DNA of bacteria replicates its chromosome and just doubles its essential contents.


2. Growth of Cell: After replication, the process cell starts growing by increasing the amount of cytoplasm along with organelles. Another important part of this stage is that two strands move toward opposite poles.


3. Segregation of DNA: The cell elongated with the furrow in the middle. The two chromosomes also separate themself.


4. Splitting of Cell: A new cell wall is formed and a cell splits at the center dividing the parent cell into two daughter cells.


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Shape of Amoeba Under Compound Microscope:

When we viewed Amoeba in a microscope it looks like a colorless transparent jelly moving across the field slowly as they change their shape. Finger-like projection of Amoeba is known as Pseudopodia, as Pseudo means false and Podoia means legs.


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How Binary Fission Occurs in Amoeba:

Amoeba is a unicellular Eukaryotic organism which reproduces through binary fission. It undergoes all processes which are present during binary fission like replication of DNA, growth of cell, segregation and at last termination process that is two daughter cells are formed. In this process two similar cells are formed which further act as a parent cell and they also repeat the same process.


Budding:

Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site. The small bulb-like projection coming out from the yeast cell is called a bud. Since the reproduction is asexual, the newly created organism is a clone and excepting mutations is genetically identical to the parent organism. Yeast mainly reproduce through vegetative growth like budding, where small buds are formed on the parent.


Organisms such as yeast and hydra use regenerative cells for reproduction in the process of budding.


Yeast:

Yeast are single - celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. Yeast first originated hundred million years ago, and at least 1,500 species are currently recognised. Yeast species are also used during the fermentation process. It is also used in preparation of wine and alcohol. The product of this reaction has been used in the baking process. Yeast are very common in the environment and are mostly extracted from sugar isolated material.


How Budding In Yeast Occurs:

It is a kind of vegetative asexual reproduction, where buds are formed on the parent cell and they form new individuals from these buds. The nucleus of the parent nucleus divides into daughter nucleus and moves to the daughter cell.


They are genetically identical to their parents.


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Budding Involves Various Steps Like:

  1. Formation of Bud: buds are formed on the parent body.

  2. Division of Cytoplasm: cytoplasm equally divides into daughter cells.

  3. Termination of Bud into Different Individuals: formed buds terminate into separate daughter bodies.

 

Prepared Slide of Budding:

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MCQ Based on Budding and Binary Fission:

1. Budding is most commonly seen in:

  1. Yeast

  2. Grasses

  3. Amoeba

  4. Spirogyra

Answer: Yeast


2. Amoeba most commonly reproduce in or with which mode:

  1. Spore formation

  2. Binary fission

  3. Sexually 

Answer : Binary fission


3. Binary fission show similarity with which mode of division:

  1. Mitosis division

  2. Meiotic division

Answer: Mitosis division


4. Which event occurs first in amoeba during binary fission:

  1. Cytokinesis

  2. Karyokinesis

Answer: Cytokinesis

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is Binary Fission?

Binary fission is a kind of asexuall reproduction where cells divide into two halves to increase their population. This process is similar to mitosis division in higher organisms.

2. Define Budding?

It is also a kind of vegetative asexual reproduction performed in yeast, where small bud is formed from parent cell and they reproduce to form new individuals.

3. How Does Amoeba Reproduce?

Amoeba reproduces asexually through binary fission. In this process, an individual divides itself into two daughter cells. These are genetically identical to each other.

4. State all Types of Binary Fission?

There are four types of binary fission that includes,

  1. Irregular binary fission

  2. Longitudinal binary fission

  3. Transverse binary fission 

  4. Oblique binary fission

5. How Binary Fission is Different From Multiple Fission?

In binary fission single parents  form only two daughter cells whereas in Multiple fission single parents form multiple daughter cells.