Batrachospermum Algae

Batrachospermum is a type of algae that grows in freshwater. It lives in transparent, cool, and fast-moving streams. Plants in deep water are dark violet or reddish in color. The shallow-water species, on the other hand, are olive green. The color of pigments is affected by the strength of light. The substratum is bound to the thallus.


Batrachospermum Classification

  • Division: Rhodophyta

  • Class: Florideophyceae

  • Order: Batrachospermales

  • Family: Batrachospermaceae



That's one of the freshwater Rhodophyceae species. This alga can be found in slow-moving streams, as well as along the shores of lakes and ponds. It's more common in well-oxygenated waters. Colors include blue-green, olive-green, violet, and reddish. Because of the variations in light intensity, the color changes. The species that develop in deep water appear reddish or violet in color, while those that grow in shallow water are olive-green. Frogspawn is another name for the alga. To the naked eye, the plants look mucilaginous, moniliform, or beaded.


General Structure

Vegetative Structure

The adult plant's thallus is soft, dense, and filamentous. It has a lot of branches and is gelatinous. A single row of broad cells makes up the central axis. Upon that axis, whorls of branches with limited growth evolve. These filamentous, dichotomously arranged branches are filamentous. The main axis has a corticated appearance. A series of elongated cylindrical cells make up this structure. It is divided into two categories: nodes and internodes.


From the Nodes the Two Groups of Branches

  • Branches of Limited Growth: These emerge in whorls from the nodes. Such branches grow for a while before becoming long hairs. Their cells were arranged in a bead-like pattern. A whorl's branches were of the same length. As a result, they form globos structure glomerulus.

  • Branches of Unlimited Growth: Such branches develop from the imsal cells of limited-growth branches. These are often corticated and divided into nodes and internodes. From their nodes, branches of minimal growth emerge. Their cells become longer in comparison.


The cells have no nuclei. Two-layered cell walls keep their cells in check. The outer layer is made up of pectic compounds, while the inner layer is made up of cellulose. Within cells, pit connections exist. There are several irregular chromatophores in a cell. Phorerythrin, phycocyanin, and some other photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll-a, Carotene, chlorophyll b, and Xanthophyll are among its pigments. A single pyrenoid is present in each chromatophore. The axis' central cells are linked by cytoplasmic connections. Floedean starch is a food ingredient that has been set aside.


Components of the Cell

The cells have no nuclei. Two-layered cell walls keep their cells in check. The outer layer is made up of pectic compounds, while the inner layer is made up of cellulose. Within cells, pit connections exist. There are several irregular chromatophores in a cell. Phorerythrin, phycocyanin, and some other photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll-a, Carotene, chlorophyll b, and Xanthophyll are among its pigments. A single pyrenoid is present in each chromatophore. The axis' central cells are linked by cytoplasmic connections. Floedean starch is a food ingredient that has been set aside.



  • Limited-growth branches are formed as a single cell at the apex of the main clament grows. The cell undergoes transverse division. It hacked away at cells on the backside. Four small cells are cut off by each of these cells. The initials of these cells become the side branches' initials. Such kind initials are divided numerous times. These lateral cell groups produce a coster of small branches. It creates a beaded pattern on the vine. A glomerulus is a group of side branches. Whorls are formed by these branches.

  • Central Axis Cell Elongation: The central axis cell elongates dramatically. As a result, lateral cells begin to differentiate from one another. As a result, on the axis, they create a node-like structure.

  • Formation of Pseudocortex: Filaments are generated by the cells at the nodes as they move downward. They encircle the central cells before they reach the next node. As a result, a loose covering forms around the central axis. Pseudocortex is the term for this loose coating.

  • Formation of Unrestricted-growth Branches: Apical cells may be one or more cells on each node. Like the main axis, this cell develops lateral branches with infinite growth potential.


Batrachospermum Reproduction

  • Asexual Reproduction: Batrachospermum produces monospores, which are non-motile asexual spores. Only the juvenile or chantransia stage produces them.

  • Sexual Reproduction: Oogamy is a form of sexual reproduction. It's possible that the plant is both homothallic and heterothallic.

  • Antheridia or Spermatangia: Antheridia or spermatangia are the male sex organs. They are a single-celled structure. The mature spermatogonium has a thick wall, is colorless, and has a rounded shape. Spermatangia are made singly, in pairs, and in four-person groups. Antheridium protoplast transforms into just a single non-motile spermatium. The antheridial wall fractures, allowing sperm to escape.

  • Carpogonia: Carpogonia is the female reproductive organ. Carpogonia is a single-celled organism. It is made up of an elongated cell that is present at the base. Trichogyne refers to the larger upper section. Mirophore refers to the lower globular part. Ascocarp refers to the branch that bears the carpogonium. The ascocarp is made up of four cells. Carpogonium is formed by the terminal cell. Mirophore contains the nucleus of an egg. The nucleus of an egg is enclosed by cytoplasm and transforms into an egg. A constriction separates the trichogyne from the mirophore. Trichogyne is a sperm-receiving organ.


Batrachospermum Life Cycle

The spermatia that are not motile float in the water. The trichogyne is approached by a large number of spermatia. The trichogyne is attached to one of the spermatia. The contact wall dissolves, and one of the spermatium's two nuclei flows via this hole into the trichogyne, fusing with the female egg and developing into the zygote within the basal swollen region of the carpogonium. The trichogyne then shrivels down until it reaches the constriction between trichogyne and carpogonium. At the same time, across wall forms at this stage.


Germination of the Zygote

The zygote's diploid nucleus separates meiotically, yielding two haploid nuclei. After that, one of the two nuclei travels into the zygote's lateral protrusion. This protrusion is separated from the rest of the zygote by a wall, and the gonimoblast initial is shaped in this way. The other daughter nucleus divides many times, resulting in a large number of gonimoblast initials. The gonimoblast branches out, and the terminal cells of such branched gonimoblast grow into carposporangia. Each carposporangium generates a unique single haploid carpospore that is rounded. The cystocarp or carposporophyte is a structure of gonimoblast filaments, carposporangia, and carpospores.

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FAQs on Batrachospermum

1. Food is preserved in which Type of Batrachospermum Algae?

In the class of Batrachospermum algae, food is preserved in the form of mannitol.  Mannitol is mainly a type of sugar that is also added to sweeteners and medication. The chemical formula of this sugar is C6H14O6. It has a boiling point of around 295 ° celcius. This type of sugar is also used in manufacturing drugs that reduce swelling and pressure inside the eye or headaches. It has an OH linkage in the structure (at the top and bottom of the carbon atoms). Moreover, the first and last C atom of the chain also contains OH linkage on this structure.

2. What is Batrachospermum's Natural Habitat?

Batrachospermum can be found all over the world in cold lakes, ponds, and bogs. B. gelatinosum is found in North America, and as far north as the tundra. Light, current velocity, basic conductance, pH, and temperature are all tolerable to the organisms. They are also found in areas with coral reefs and tide pools. Batrachospermum has the capability to survive in the depth of the marine bodies, where other algae can not be seen commonly. They can also be seen around moist stones or dense wood where vegetation is widely populated.

3. What is Moss? How is Red Algae Different from Moss?

Moss is small, flourless, and green plants that do not have roots deep in the soil. They are found in various parts of the world and can grow in tunnels and caves as well.

Difference between moss and red algae :

  • The red algae always grow in aquatic habitats whereas moss is commonly seen in moist, shady places which have dark environments.

  • Red algae are smaller in size and diameter as compared to moss and other green multicellular plants.

  • Red algae have fewer chloroplasts/cells than moss.

  • Red algae don’t have pores or stomata on the surface whereas moss has stomatal pores present on leaves.

  • Rhizoids are present in moss but absent in red algae.

  • Red algae don’t have sterile jackets but in the case of moss, sex organs are surrounded by sterile jackets. 

  • Reproduction in moss takes place due to oogamous gamete but red algae do not have oogamous gamete.

These are the points of difference between the two. With the help of Vedantu's free course, students can learn different topics in the same way. The course also provides students with PDF, notes, sample questions, and MCQ series for understanding each and every topic in depth. 

4. Batrachospermum is a Gene of which Organism? Explain the Gene in Brief and give Examples. 

Batrachospermum is a gene belonging to the red algae family. Basically, an organism that is neither red coloured nor marine is a Batrachospermum. It is found in a colour range from violet to blue-green. 

Moreover, red algae are one of the oldest eukaryotic algae groups in the world. The other name of batrachospermum is Rhodophyta. 

More detail about Rhodophyta is as follows :

  • These are considered as one of the largest phyla of algae. There are 6,793 different known species of red algae in the present time. 

  • Most of the species of red algae are classified as multicellular and marine algae belonging to the Florideophyceae class of algae. 

  • These types of algae are rarely seen in freshwaters but are very popular in marine habitats having muddy surroundings. Only 5% or fewer red algae are present in freshwater resources and most of them are in warmer areas. 

  • A special asexual class of red algae named Cyanidiophyceae is the only species that still exist. Other species of this class are extinct due to evolution and changes in environmental biodiversity.

  • The red algae consist of eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles. They also have chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum.

  • The red colour of this algae is due to the accessory pigment called phycobiliproteins present in their body.

  • They store sugar in the form of Floridian starch, which is a type of starch-containing highly branched amylopectin structure without amylose.

  • This type of algae has 3 generations and is mainly an alternation of generation.

  • There are many different species that have exceptions in their properties and characteristics.

5. Differentiate between Red Algae and Fungi.

The following points tell the difference between red algae and fungi -

  • The red algae belong to the 'Protista' kingdom of algae whereas fungi belong to the 'fungi' kingdom.

  • Generally, red algae are present in marine and aquatic bodies such as lakes, ponds, etc whereas fungi are terrestrial organisms that can be easily found on the dead and decayed matter of the ecosystem.

  • Some algae can be prokaryotic in a few cases but fungi are always eukaryotes.

  • The red algae feed on the plant-feeding process and Possess chlorophyll by the photosynthesis process. On the other hand, fungi obtain their food from dead matter and not by photosynthetic pigment.

  • The red algae belong to the algae family therefore they are Autotrophic organisms. Fungi are Heterotrophs and consume the dead nutrients. 

  • Because red algae is an aquatic plant, it requires sunlight for its survival. Therefore, red algae cannot survive in the dark whereas the fungi can survive in the dark easily.

  • The cell wall of red algae is composed of cellulose but fungi have a chitin composition in the cell wall.

  • Fungi store their food in the form of glycogen, oil globules, and in the case of red algae food is stored as starch.

  • Red algae have a parenchymatous body type whereas fungi have a paseo-parenchymatous body type.

  • Red algae have uninucleated cells body composition and fungi have multinucleated cells.

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