The mode of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of male and female gametes and produces individuals that are genetically identical to the parent is known as Asexual reproduction.
Asexual Reproduction in Plants Definition
Budding, fragmentation, vegetative propagation, and spore formation take place as the process of Asexual Reproduction in plants. No flowers are required for this method. The plants produced by asexual reproduction tend to thrive well in stable environments.
Types of Asexual Reproduction in Plants
Asexual reproduction in plants takes place two ways as mentioned below -
Natural methods of asexual reproduction include self-propagation. Below mentioned are the various ways in which a plant self propagates.
From the buds present on the surface of the stem, plants such as ginger, onion, dahlia, potato, grow. Under favourable conditions, these buds sprout producing leafy shoots.
In sweet potatoes, new plants can grow from the adventitious buds or stolons.
In Bryophyllum, the small buds grow on the margin of the leaves and get detached and grow into an independent plant.
Budding is the mode of asexual reproduction wherein a new plant is developed from an outgrowth that is known as the bud. Due to the procedure of cell division at one particular site, a bud is formed.
For example, if you keep a potato for a long time, you can notice a number of small outgrowths, which are commonly referred to as ‘eyes’. Each of them can be planted with the aim to grow like a clone of an original potato plant.
It is a kind of asexual reproduction that usually occurs in plants, in which new plants are produced from the vegetative parts of the plants, i.e. roots, stems, or buds. Vegetative propagation in plants can occur both naturally or also can be artificially induced by horticulturists.
The most common techniques of vegetative propagation are as follows.
Stems– These are the stems that usually grow in a horizontal position that is above the ground. They have the nodes where the buds are formed. These buds usually grow into a new plant.
Roots– When a new plant is developed from modified roots that are called Tubers.
Example: Sweet Potato
Leaves– In some plants, detached leaves from the parent plant can be used to grow a new plant. They promote the growth of small plants, called plantlets, on the edge of their leaves.
It is a kind of asexual reproduction of plants in which a new plant takes birth from a portion of the parent plant. This type of reproduction happens naturally where the small part of the plant falls off onto soil and then begins to grow up into a new plant. This method is generally used by nurseries and greenhouses to produce plants faster.
Spores in the life cycle are formed by many plants and algae. It is an asexual reproductive body that is being surrounded by a hard protective cover to handle unfavourable conditions such as high temperature and low humidity. Under favourable conditions, the spores germinate well and tend to grow into new plants. In this mode of reproduction, plants like moss and ferns are used.
Below mentioned are the artificial methods of asexual reproduction in plants:
In this method, a part of a plant is cut from the node part and is buried into the soil.
The cutting is watered regularly.
This process is adopted as it is the cheapest method of vegetative propagation in plants.
Grafting is a method in which the parts of two different plants are joined together such that they continue to grow as a single plant.
The rooted plant is known as the stock. The other plant is known as the graft.
It can be defined as a process in which a stem is attached to a plant and is lowered in the ground that is covered with the soil. Before detaching as an independent plant, the stem grows while attached to the parent plant.
When a large number of plants from an ex-plant is produced under laboratory conditions within a short span of time, that is known as Micropropagation. This helps and promotes the growth of rare and endangered plant species that are difficult to grow under natural conditions.