Plant Kingdom

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Plant kingdom is divided into two types: one is cryptogamia i.e plant without flower and another one is phanerogamic plants with flower like structure or flower. In this way Eichler classifies plant kingdom into five divisions arranged in them in the order of evolution i.e Phylogeny. Cryptogamia is divided into three types, they are thallophyta, bryophyta, pteridophyta whereas Phanerogamic is divided into two types, they are Gymnosperm( flower like structure) and Angiosperm(real flower). Engler classifies plant kingdom on the basis of embryo. They are thallophyta( embryo absent) and Embryophyta(embryo present). Further embryophyta is divided into two types based on fertilization one is Zoodiogamy i.e male gametes are motile and reach the female gamete by swimming and another one is Siphonogama i.e male gamete are non motile as male gamete reach the female gamete through pollen tube. 


Classification of Plant Kingdom in Order of Evolution

Division of Plant Kingdom

1.  Cryptogamia (Plants Without Flower): those plants in which reproductive organs are not visible i.e not arranged in flower.

  1. Thallophyta

  2. Bryophyta

  3. Pteridophyta


2. Phanerogamia (Plants With Flower Like Structure and Flower): Those plants in which reproductive organs are arranged in flower or flower like structure.

  1. Gymnosperm (flower like structure)

  2. Angiosperm (Real flowers)


Classification of Plant Kingdom on the Basis of Embryo

This Classification was given by Engler.

1. Thallophyta (Embryo Absent): 

2. Embryophyta (Embryo Present): They are further divided into two types on the basis of fertilization.

  1. Zooidogamy: Fertilization by zooidogamy i.e male game are motile and reach the female gametes by swimming. They are further divided into two types:

               a. Bryophyta

               b. Pteridophyta

  1. Siphonogamy: fertilization by Siphonogamy i.e male gamete are non motile, male gamete reach the female gamete through pollen tube. They are further classified into three classes.

  1. Gymnospermae

  2. Monocotyledonae

  3. Dicotyledonae: they are further divided into two different sub classes, they are Archichlamydeae (free petalous and nonpetalous condition) and Monochlamydeae (united petalous condition). 


Oswald Tippo Classification of Plant Kingdom

It proposed the biggest phylogenetic classification of plant kingdom and it is the most acceptable classification for books and study.


A. Thallophyta: They Are Further Divided Into 10 Types

  1. Cyanophyta: Blue green algae

  2. Euglenophyta: Euglenoids

  3. Chlorophyta: Green algae

  4. Chrysophyta: Yellow-green-algae

  5. Pyrrophyta: Diatoms and Dinoflagellates

  6. Phaeophyta: Brown algae

  7. Rhodophyta: Red algae

  8. Schizomycophyta: Bacteria

  9. Myxomycophyta: Slime molds(false fungi)

  10. Eumycophyta: True fungi

These ten divisions include three types of organisms, they are algae, bacteria and fungi. 


B. Embryophyta: They Are Further Divided Into Two Types on the Basis of Vascular Tissue. 

  1. Atracheata: Bryophyta(non vascular plants): they are further divided into three classes:

  1. Hepaticopsida: Liverworts

  2. Anthoceropsida: Hornworts

  3. Bryopsida: Moss(true)


      2. Tracheophyta (Vascular Plants): they are further divided into four classes. 

               a. Psilopsida: psilotum

               b. Lycopsida: Club moss(false moss)

               c. Sphenopsida: horse tail

  1. Pteropsida: ferns, gymno, angiosperm


Karl Menz Classification of Plant Kingdom

He shows the importance of serology in taxonomy. Similarities and dissimilarities in the structure of protein help to know the phylogenetic relationship of living beings. Living organisms which are phylogenetically close relatives have more similarities in their proteins. Organisms which are distantly related have different proteins. 


Haeckel Theory of Classification of Plant Kingdom

Haeckel gave the three kingdoms (protista, Plantae, Animalia) a system of classification. He established the kingdom protista. The term protista was given by C. Cuvier. He grouped those living organisms in protista which did not have tissues. Kingdom protista includes Prokaryotes protozoa, porifera, algae and fungi. 


Copeland Classification System of Plant Kingdom

He gave the four kingdom system of classification. 

1. Mychota: Dougherty and Allen gave the name “Monera” tp Mychota of Copeland. All prokaryotes are grouped in monera. 

2. Protista or Prototista: Copeland grouped those eukaryotes in protista, which are visually different from normal plants and animals.

3. Plants or Metaphyta: Remaining all eukaryotic plants are grouped.

4. Animalia and Metazoa: Remaining all eukaryotic animals are grouped.


R.H. Whittaker Classification of Plant Kingdom

He gave the five systems of classification. This classification was believed to be modern. This classification are based on three main characters:

A. Complexity of Cell: Cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic, on the basis kingdom Monera is formed. And all the prokaryotes are grouped into it.

B. Complexity of Organism: Organism is unicellular or multicellular, on the basis kingdom protista was formed and all the unicellular eukaryotes are grouped into it. 

C. Nutrition: Organism is autotrophic and heterotrophic, on the basis kingdom mycota, plantae and animalia was formed. Except fungi (heterotrophic) all the plants are autotrophs. Therefore fungi is separated from plants and placed in the kingdom mycota. And remaining all the autotrophic plants are placed in kingdom plantae. Since all animals are heterotrophs, therefore they are placed in the fifth kingdom i.e kingdom animalia.


Five Kingdom Classification

1. Monera: All the prokaryotes (Eubacteria, BGA, Mycoplasma) and Akaryotes(virus).

2. Protista: All the unicellular eukaryotes ( Dinoflagellates, Diatoms, Slime moulds and protozoa)

3. Mycota: True fungi

4. Plantae: All the multicellular plants- Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperm, Angiosperm.

5. Animalia: All multicellular animals. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Write the Classification of Plant Kingdom Based on Evolutionary Time?

Division of plant kingdom on the basis of evolution:

1.  Cryptogamia (plants without flower): those plants in which reproductive organs are not visible i.e not arranged in flower.

A. Thallophyta

B. Bryophyta

C. pteridophyta

2. Phanerogamia (plants with flower like structure and flower): Those plants in which reproductive organs are arranged in flower or flower like structure.

A. Gymnosperm (flower like structure)

B. Angiosperm (Real flowers)

2. Define Classification?

Classification is a  systematic arrangement in groups or categories according to established criteria. Classification is based on various categories, we can classify anything on the basis of any category. 

3. Write Classification of Plant Kingdom on the Basis of Embryo?

This classification was given by Engler.

1. Thallophyta (embryo absent): 

2. Embryophyta ( embryo present): They are further divided into two types on the basis of fertilization.

A. Zooidogamy: Fertilization by zooidogamy i.e male game are motile and reach the female gametes by swimming. They are further divided into two types:

a. Bryophyta

b. Pteridophyta

B. Siphonogamy: fertilization by Siphonogamy i.e male gamete are non motile, male gamete reach the female gamete through pollen tube. They are further classified into three classes.

a. Gymnospermae

b. Monocotyledonae

c. Dicotyledonae: they are further divided into two different sub classes, they are Archichlamydeae (free petalous and nonpetalous condition) and Monochlamydeae (united petalous condition).