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Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 6 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 29th May 2024
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Class 10 Notes for Manufacturing Industries Geography Chapter 6 - FREE PDF Download

Manufacturing refers to the production of items from raw materials on a large scale. While production itself is the primary activity, the workers involved in the process of manufacturing are secondary activities in this regard. From bakeries to steel plants, everything falls under manufacturing industries. Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes by Vedantu provides a detailed picture of this sector that contributes to the country’s economy. However, among all the industries involved in manufacturing, the notes of Manufacturing Industries Class 10 PDF includes those that are secondary sector. Read here or download the Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Chapter 6 Notes PDF free of cost.

Topics Covered in the Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries of Class 10

Below given is the list of various topics discussed in the chapter ‘Manufacturing Industries’. 

  • Importance of Manufacturing

  • Contribution of Industry to National Economy

  • Industrial Location

  • Classification of Industries

  • Agro-based Industries (Textile Industry, Cotton Textiles, Jute Textiles, Sugar Industry)

  • Mineral-based Industries (Iron and Steel Industry, Aluminium Smelting, Chemical Industries, Fertilizer Industry, Cement Industry, Automobile Industry, Information Technology, and Electronics Industry)

  • Processes of Manufacture of Steel

  • Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation (Air, Water, Thermal and Noise Pollution)

  • Control of Environmental Degradation

This chapter also lay emphasis on these questions and their explanations, and these questions are also quite important from the Board exams perspective.

  • Why is it important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than the power loom and handloom?

  • Why is it important for us to improve our weaving sector instead of exporting yarn in large quantities?

  • Why is the per capita consumption of steel so low in India?

Highlights of the Chapter: Manufacturing Industries


Cental Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)


Contemporary India-2




Social Science (Geography)



Chapter Name

Manufacturing Industries


Revision Notes

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Access Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries Notes

Importance of Manufacturing

Manufacturing is seen as a backbone of development for the following reasons:

  • It helps the nation prosper by stimulating the economy.

  • It is instrumental in eradicating unemployment and poverty.

  • The export of manufactured products increases trade and commerce and provides much needed foreign currency.

  • Manufacturing industries contribute to the modernization of agriculture through the creation of jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors.

Industrial contribution to the national economy.

The trend in the growth rate of the manufacturing sector over the past decade has been around 7 percent annually.

Industrial Location

Industrial sites are inherently complex. They are affected by the availability of raw materials, labor, capital, power and market, etc. It is not often possible to find all of these available factors in the same location. As a result, manufacturing activity tends to be at the most appropriate location where all industrial location factors are available or can be arranged more cheaply.Cities provide markets and services such as banks, insurance, transportation, labour, consultants and financial advisory services, etc. to the industry. Many industries tend to join forces to take advantage of the advantages offered by urban centres called agglomeration economies. Progressively, a major industrial agglomeration is taking place. In the period prior to independence, most manufacturing units were located in places from the standpoint of foreign trade such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, etc. As a result, pockets of industrially developed urban centres, surrounded by an immense agricultural rural back country, have emerged.

Agro-based Industries

Cotton, jute, silk, woollen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. Industries are based upon agricultural commodities. Let's hear it one by one.

Textile Industry

It's the only industry in India that is autonomous and comprehensive in the value chain, i.e. from raw materials into higher value-added products. It contributes to industrial production, employment creation and foreign exchange income.

Cotton Textiles

This industry is closely associated with agriculture and provides a livelihood for farmers, cotton boll pickers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, design, packaging, and sewing.  It supports numerous other industries, such as chemicals and stains, packaging materials and engineering structures.

Jute Textiles

India is the leading producer of raw jute and jute produce. Most of the mills are situated in West Bengal, mostly along the banks of the Hugli River.

Sugar Industry

India ranks second as a global sugar producer, but is the largest producer of Gur and Khandsari. This industry is seasonally based.

Mineral-based Industries

Industries which use minerals and metals as raw materials are referred to as industries of mineral origin. Let's talk about some of the industries that fit into that category.

Iron and Steel Industry

The steel industry is the backbone industry like any other industry – heavy, medium and light, depending on it for their machinery. It is considered a heavy industry because all raw materials, as well as finished goods, are heavy and bulky, resulting in high transport costs.

India is a major iron and steel producer in the world, but we are not in a position to realize our full potential largely because of:

  • Expensive and limited availability of coking coal.

  • Decrease in labor productivity.

  • Inconsistent supply of energy.

  • Poor infrastructure.

Aluminium Smelting

The aluminum smelter is the second largest metallurgy industry in India. It is used in the manufacture of airplanes, utensils and wires. Bauxite is the raw product used in foundries.

The aluminum smelter has gained popularity as an alternative to steel, copper, zinc, and lead in a number of industries. The following properties can be found:

  • Lightweight when weighed.

  • It is corrosion resistant.

  • A good heat conductive.

  • Malleable

  • Gets tough when mixed with other metals.

Chemical Industries

The chemical industry consists of large and small scale manufacturing plants. Rapid growth was observed in the inorganic and organic sectors.

Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash, and caustic soda.

Organic chemicals include petrochemical products, which are used in the manufacture of synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dyes, medicines, and pharmaceutical products.


Fertilizer Industry

The fertilizer industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP), and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K). The third, i.e. potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Kerala account for half of the fertilizer output.


Cement Industry

Cement is critical to the construction of homes, plants, bridges, roads, airports, dams and other commercial facilities. This industry depends on bulky and heavy raw materials such as limestone, silica and gypsum.


Automobile Industry

It is responsible for the manufacture of trucks, buses, automobiles, motorcycles, scooters, three-wheeled vehicles and commercial vehicles. They are found around Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.


Information Technology and Electronics Industry

The electronic industry covers a broad range of products from transistors to television, telephones, cellular telecommunications, telephone exchanges, radar, computers, and numerous other equipment required by the telecommunications industry. It has brought jobs to India. Bengaluru is well known as India's electronics capital.


Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

Industries are involved in four types of pollution:

  1. Air

  2. Water

  3. Land

  4. Noise

Air Pollution: It is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Particles suspended in the air contain solid and liquid particles such as dust, fog and smoke.

Water Pollution: It is caused by organic and inorganic industrial waste and tributaries discharged to rivers. The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc. into the water bodies.

Thermal Pollution: It occurs when warm water from plants and thermal power plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.

Noise Pollution: It is not only results in irritation and anger, it can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects. Unwanted sounds are irritating and create stress. 


Control of Environmental Degradation

The following are some means by which industrial pollution can be reduced:

  1. Minimize water usage through reuse and recycling.

  2. Collection of rain water to meet water requirements.

  3. Treatment of warm water and effluent prior to release to rivers and ponds.

  4. Airborne particles can be reduced by installing smoke stacks in plants with electrostatic dust collectors, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.

  5. You can reduce the smoke by using oil and gas instead of coal in the plants.

  6. Machines can be redesigned to make them more energy efficient and reduce noise.


Manufacturing Industries Notes: An Overview of Different Industries

In India, there are a good number of industries all across the country. Be it agro-based industry or be it automobiles - Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes include all of them. Brief details about these industries are provided below.


Textile Industry

An agriculture-based industry, textile is the only industry which can be called self-reliant. With regard to value chain (from acquiring the raw materials to the production of highest value-added items), the textile industry is termed as “complete”. While the importance of manufacturing is equal for all, the textile industry facilitates industrial production, foreign exchange earnings and most importantly, generates employment.

Cotton and jute are two types of textiles under this industry. From the Manufacturing Industries class 10 PDF you will see that there are not only farmers involved, but workers at different level who are dependent on the industry. Cotton ball pluckers, labours involved in various levels of the value chain (ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and finally sewing) are supported by it. Other industries like manufacturing of packaging materials, chemical dyes etc are also influenced by the cotton textile industry.

Jute industry is another part of the textile industry. India tops the list of raw jute and jute items producers. While jute as a crop is produced in many parts of India, the jute mills are mainly found in West Bengal along the banks of the river Hooghly.


Mineral-Based Industry

As the name suggests, the industries under this segment are dependent on the raw materials and minerals. This industry has branched out and includes the following.

  • Iron and Steel

Based on the machinery used, it can be heavy, medium or light. Certain hindrances do not allow India to be able to perform that well. These include lack of proper infrastructure, reduced labour productivity, lower availability of coal and high cost of it, irregularity in power supply etc.

  • Aluminium Smelting

Class 10 Manufacturing Industries Notes mark this industry as the most important industry of metallurgy. From wire to aircraft, this product is used everywhere. Bauxite is the raw material here. Aluminium smelting substitutes zinc, lead copper etc. The high demand is mainly due to the lightweight, corrosion resistance, good heat-conducting ability, malleability and the special ability to become stronger when used with other metals.


Chemical Industry

This industry is involved in the production of both organic and inorganic chemicals. The former includes the production of petrochemicals which is again used in manufacturing rubber, synthetic fibres, pharmaceutical products, dyes, plastics etc. The latter includes alkalis, nitric acid, caustic soda, sulphuric acid, soda ash etc.

Fertiliser Industry

Fertilizer production is highest in the Indian states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh etc. The main items that are produced in this sector of the manufacturing industry are:

  • Nitrogenous fertilisers.

  • Complex fertilisers having the combination of phosphate (P), nitrogen (N) and potash (K).

  • Phosphatic fertilisers and ammonium phosphate (DAP).

Cement Industry

From building houses to airports, bridges to factories; cement is something that forms the base of the construction activities. Dams, bridges, commercial buildings- all need cement. Production of cement, as you will know from the Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes, is based upon raw materials like gypsum, silica, limestone in heavy mounts.

Automobile Industry

It includes the production of trucks, cars, buses, motorcycles, scooters, various multi-utility vehicles, three-wheelers etc. Most numbers of manufacturing units of this industry are located in Gurugram, Lucknow, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, Pune etc.

Information Technology and Electronic Industry

One of the employment generating industry sector, the information technology and electronic industry includes the production of the following:

  • Television.

  • Telephone.

  • Radars.

  • Computers.

  • Cellular telecom.

  • Telephone exchange.

  • Other items involved in telecommunication.

Industrial Pollution And Environmental Degradation

Industries give rise to 4 main types of pollution:

  1. Air pollution caused by the emission of toxic gases, CO, SO₂, smoke, from factories, smelters, refineries, etc., and have an adverse impact on human respiratory health, animals, plants

  2. Water pollution caused by the mixing of industrial effluents and wastes with river water from industries like textile, chemical, dyes, tanneries, paper, etc.

  3. Thermal pollution caused by water from thermal plants draining into the river.

  4. Noise pollution caused by various machinery impacting the hearing ability of humans.

Download Class 10 Contemporary India Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries Resource Notes 

Students can download Class 10 Contemporary India II Revision Notes for all chapters free pdf through the links below.

Related Link

Manufacturing Industries Chapter 6 of CBSE Class 10 is one of the most important chapters from the board exams perspective. Students who are preparing for the board examination look for last-minute revision notes for quick and concise revision. Vedantu understands the pain of its students and, therefore, provides the short and easy-to-understand revision notes of Geography Chapter 6 Class 10, which students will find useful in the learning process. Students can also access other chapter revision notes of Geography on our website. 

Did You Know?

Environmental degradation can be reduced by:

  • Minimising water use and maximising recycling.

  • Using rainwater.

  • Treating effluents before disposal.

  • Using oil or gas instead of coal.

What are the Benefits of using Vedantu’s Revision Notes for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries

  • Provides quick, clear summaries of key concepts.

  • Simplifies complex topics for better understanding.

  • An efficient tool for last-minute exam prep.

  • Enhances retention of crucial information.

  • Supports effective exam preparation with key points and tips.

  • Saves time by consolidating information.

  • Prioritizes important topics and questions.

  • Offers practical examples for real-world connections.

  • Boosts student confidence for exams.


The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 “Manufacturing Industries”, provided by Vedantu, is a valuable tool for Class 10 students. It helps introduce Science concepts in an accessible manner. The provided solutions and explanations simplify complex ideas, making it easier for Class 10 Students to understand the material. By using Vedantu's resources, Students can develop a deeper understanding of NCERT concepts. These solutions are a helpful aid for grade 10 students, empowering them to excel in their studies and develop a genuine appreciation for “Manufacturing Industries”.

FAQs on Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 6 (Free PDF Download)

1. What is the Importance of Manufacturing Industries?

The importance of manufacturing industries is immense in an economy. These include:

  • Modernises of agriculture.

  • Creates employment scopes in both secondary and tertiary sectors.

  • Expansion of trade and commerce.

  • Improves foreign exchange.

  • Boosts economy.

  • Helps the country prosper.

2.  What are the Factors that Influence Industrial Location?

Factors influencing industrial growth in a location include:

  • Raw material availability.

  • Governmental policies.

  • Labour.

  • Market.

  • Power.

  • Capital.

In a location where all these are found together, it can be considered as the best suitable location for a type of industry. A location is still considered to be good even if these are not readily available there but can be acquired at low cost.

3. What is the manufacturing industry according to  Class 10?

Class 10 CBSE Social Science Geography chapter 6 notes tell us about the various manufacturing industries. Here the students will get to learn about the entire functioning inside an industry. The term manufacturing refers to the process of producing something that is any kind of goods right from the scratch to a large scale. This will also give the students an idea of how the industrial sector works right from bakeries to automobile manufacturing.

4. What do you know about industry class 10?

If you study the notes from Vedantu Class 10 Social Science Geography chapter you will come across various terms like industry, manufacture etc and if you go on to understand the topics you will understand how good are produced in huge quantities by using raw materials in an area filled with both manpower and various equipments and machines. There are various kinds of industries that produce different kinds of goods like food items, textiles, electronics, automobiles etc.

5. What is the importance of manufacturing according to Class 10 CBSE?

Manufacturing means producing something from the very beginning and bringing out a finished product that will be available for the consumers on a large scale. So these large scale manufacturing can occur only in an industrial unit with workforce and machines. And such manufacturing industries not only produce goods but also generate employment for many, strengthen the industrial base of a country, develop an effective export and help to better the economy as well. 

6. What is the importance of manufacturing industries?

The importance of manufacturing industries is very well explained in the notes and solutions PDF provided by Vedantu. Manufacturing industries have immense contributions to a country. It says how these industries are beneficial to the Nation in terms of economy, employment, availability of generic goods, development in the industrial sector etc.  Owing to its several uses, it must be understood how important it is for a Nation to build manufacturing industries. 

7. What are the types of industries?

If you talk about industries, then these industries can be divided into many types depending on the types of goods they produce like agro based, textile like jute etc. , or their role in the market like what kind of benefit they are bringing to the consumers, the ownership that is public or private or government, the types of raw materials used in the industry like heavy or light raw materials like automobiles etc. You can download the Vedantu app or refer to it online for knowing more details about industries.