CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes - Manufacturing Industries

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Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Geography Chapter 6 - PDF Download

Manufacturing refers to the production of items from raw materials on a large scale. While production itself is the primary activity, the workers involved in the process of manufacturing are secondary activities in this regard. From bakeries to steel plants, everything falls under manufacturing industries. Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes by Vedantu provides a detailed picture of this sector that contributes to the country’s economy. However, among all the industries involved in manufacturing, the notes of Manufacturing Industries Class 10 PDF includes those that are secondary sector. Read here or download the  Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Chapter 6 Notes PDF free of cost.

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CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes - Manufacturing Industries part-1

Manufacturing Industries Notes: An Overview of Different Industries

In India, there are a good number of industries all across the country. Be it agro-based industry or be it automobiles - Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes include all of them. Brief details about these industries are provided below.


Textile Industry

An agriculture-based industry, textile is the only industry which can be called self-reliant. With regard to value chain (from acquiring the raw materials to the production of highest value-added items), the textile industry is termed as “complete”. While the importance of manufacturing is equal for all, the textile industry facilitates industrial production, foreign exchange earnings and most importantly, generates employment.


Cotton and jute are two types of textiles under this industry. From the Manufacturing Industries class 10 PDF you will see that there are not only farmers involved, but workers at different level who are dependent on the industry. Cotton ball pluckers, labours involved in various levels of the value chain (ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and finally sewing) are supported by it. Other industries like manufacturing of packaging materials, chemical dyes etc are also influenced by the cotton textile industry.


Jute industry is another part of the textile industry. India tops the list of raw jute and jute items producers. While jute as a crop is produced in many parts of India, the jute mills are mainly found in West Bengal along the banks of the river Hooghly.


Mineral-Based Industry

As the name suggests, the industries under this segment are dependent on the raw materials and minerals. This industry has branched out and includes the following.

  • Iron and Steel

Based on the machinery used, it can be heavy, medium or light. Certain hindrances do not allow India to be able to perform that well. These include lack of proper infrastructure, reduced labour productivity, lower availability of coal and high cost of it, irregularity in power supply etc.

  • Aluminium Smelting

Class 10 Manufacturing Industries Notes mark this industry as the most important industry of metallurgy. From wire to aircraft, this product is used everywhere. Bauxite is the raw material here. Aluminium smelting substitutes zinc, lead copper etc. The high demand is mainly due to the lightweight, corrosion resistance, good heat-conducting ability, malleability and the special ability to become stronger when used with other metals.


Chemical Industry

This industry is involved in the production of both organic and inorganic chemicals. The former includes the production of petrochemicals which is again used in manufacturing rubber, synthetic fibres, pharmaceutical products, dyes, plastics etc. The latter includes alkalis, nitric acid, caustic soda, sulphuric acid, soda ash etc.


Fertiliser Industry

Fertilizer production is highest in the Indian states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh etc. The main items that are produced in this sector of the manufacturing industry are:

  • Nitrogenous fertilisers.

  • Complex fertilisers having the combination of phosphate (P), nitrogen (N) and potash (K).

  • Phosphatic fertilisers and ammonium phosphate (DAP).

Cement Industry

From building houses to airports, bridges to factories; cement is something that forms the base of the construction activities. Dams, bridges, commercial buildings- all need cement. Production of cement, as you will know from the Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes, is based upon raw materials like gypsum, silica, limestone in heavy mounts.


Automobile Industry

It includes the production of trucks, cars, buses, motorcycles, scooters, various multi-utility vehicles, three-wheelers etc. Most numbers of manufacturing units of this industry are located in Gurugram, Lucknow, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, Pune etc.


Information Technology and Electronic Industry

One of the employment generating industry sector, the information technology and electronic industry includes the production of the following:

  • Television.

  • Telephone.

  • Radars.

  • Computers.

  • Cellular telecom.

  • Telephone exchange.

  • Other items involved in telecommunication.

Industrial Pollution And Environmental Degradation

Industries give rise to 4 main types of pollution:

  1. Air pollution caused by the emission of toxic gases, CO, SO2, smoke, from factories, smelters, refineries, etc., and have an adverse impact on human respiratory health, animals, plants

  2. Water pollution caused by the mixing of industrial effluents and wastes with river water from industries like textile, chemical, dyes, tanneries, paper, etc.

  3. Thermal pollution caused by water from thermal plants draining into the river.

  4. Noise pollution caused by various machinery impacting the hearing ability of humans.

Did You Know?

Environmental degradation can be reduced by:

  • Minimising water use and maximising recycling.

  • Using rainwater.

  • Treating effluents before disposal.

  • Using oil or gas instead of coal.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Importance of Manufacturing Industries?

Ans. The importance of manufacturing industries is immense in an economy. These include:

  • Modernises of agriculture.

  • Creates employment scopes in both secondary and tertiary sectors.

  • Expansion of trade and commerce.

  • Improves foreign exchange.

  • Boosts economy.

  • Helps the country prosper.

2.  What are the Factors that Influence Industrial Location?

Ans. Factors influencing industrial growth in a location include:

  1. Raw material availability.

  2. Governmental policies.

  3. Labour.

  4. Market.

  5. Power.

  6. Capital.

In a location where all these are found together, it can be considered as the best suitable location for a type of industry. A location is still considered to be good even if these are not readily available there but can be acquired at low cost.

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