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CBSE Class 9 Revision Notes for History Chapter 2 - Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Last updated date: 28th May 2024
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Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes History Chapter 2 - PDF Download

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution tells us about the evolution of Socialism in Europe. The revolution changed the whole society entirely and raised different questions about the well-being of peasants and workers as well as questions on economic equality. Before the 18th century, the society was divided into orders and estates and the church and aristocracy were responsible for controlling social and economical power. However, after the revolution, things started to change and people did not want to live under the orders of a higher caste of people. The colonies' development reshaped the idea of social change. Learn the chapter in detail with the help of the revision notes for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution by Vedantu. Download the PDF now!

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Access Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

The Three Political Paradigms

After the French Revolution, there was an emergence of new paradigms that were new to the political sphere of the period at that time. They were:

  • Conservatives

  • Liberals

  • Radicals

The Problems with Industrialisation

Before industrialization in Europe, the people were no longer able to sustain their livelihood using traditional farming and agriculture methods. Growing population, constant wars, monarchy, etc. were causing the living standard of the people in Europe to decline.

People came in lots to work in the industries due to which wages were very less.

Due to urbanization, problems arose due to housing and sanitation.

The liberals and radicals wanted solutions for such issues.

The Emergence of Socialism

The socialists promoted the ownership of properties to communities as they thought the privately owned properties were crony. Some socialists were Robert Owen, Louis Blanc, etc. who supported the formation of cooperatives dismantling the privately owned industries.

Karl Marx noted that the profit that was made by the owners was due to the hard work of the workers. He thought that prevention of accumulation of wealth needs to be done and dreamt of a world where the society was rich as a whole.

Socialist Revolution in Russia

  • In the early 20th century, Russia had a monarchical system.

  • Tsar Nicholas was the last emperor of the Russian Empire. 

  • The industries were only in major cities like St. Petersburg and Moscow.

  • Workers were made to suffer by the industry owners.

  • Workers were also divided but cake together to protest.

The 1905 Revolution

In 1904, inflation made the wages of the Russian workers effectively meagre.

The Putilov Iron Works fired 4 workers who were a part of the Assembly of Russian Workers.

Hence, approximately 110000 workers went on strike and gathered in St Petersburg. When they reached the Winter Palace, they were fired at and about 100 of them were killed.

Due to protests, the Tsar allowed the formation of the parliament, called the Duma.

The February Revolution

  • Due to the Russian involvement in World War, the industries failed to survive and the railways disintegrated.

  • The young men were forced to fight the war, the small workshops, and the farming too suffered for the loss of workers.

  • The women played an active part in these strikes. The workers surrounded the Winter Palace but the soldiers did not fire at them.

  • With the soldiers, the workers formed a Soviet in the parliament.

  • In 1917, the Tsar relinquished his authority.

Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

  1. What happened after the February Revolution?

Ans: The February Revolution led to the following changes in Russia:

Public meetings and associations became legal.

The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin returned in 1917. 

The number of trade unions increased drastically.

The Military Revolutionary Committee fought against the forces of the government.

On 24th October 1917, the Prime Minister left the city to accumulate the forces. 

In December 1917, the Bolsheviks had become victorious.

  1. What changes did the Bolsheviks implement after October?

Ans: Bolsheviks implemented the following changes after October Revolution:

The land was declared a social property.

The peasants took over the lands from the aristocrats.

Nationalization took place in all spheres.

Lenin dismissed the assembly after losing the elections.

  1. Why did the civil war take place in Russia after the October Revolution?

Ans: The civil war broke out in Russia after the October Revolution due to the following reasons:

  • The tyrant acts of the Bolsheviks like censorship, one-party rule, etc. made others dissatisfied.

  • Aristocrats were also angry with the Bolsheviks due to their attitude towards land ownership.

  1. How did the Bolsheviks transform Russia into a Socialist Society?

Ans: Russia became a socialist society as:

  • All the industries and banks were nationalized.

  • All the land was socialized.

  • The government regulated the prices.

  • Healthcare became cheaper.

  • Modern education was imparted to all children.

  1. How did the Russian Revolution influence the world?

Ans: The Russian revolution saw the formation of a socialist government in Europe for the first time. This instilled a belief in other countries that the socialists could also form governments and led to the emergence of multiple socialist parties in the rest of Europe.

Russian Revolution Notes

The Russian revolution Class 9 notes provide a vast detail about the revolution. The Russian revolution is also called the Russian Revolution of 1917. The bond between the people of Russia and Tsar was broken by 1917. Inefficiency and government corruption were rampant. Reactionary policies of Tsar which included Duma’s dissolution. The dissolution of the Russian government spread dissatisfaction to all the moderate elements. Many ethnic minorities started to become increasingly restless under Russian domination.

Russian Revolution Class 9

The outcomes of the Russian Revolution were:

  • The collapse of the Czars and the Russian Empire.

  • Nicholas II was forced to leave the throne due to food shortage and chronic civil unrest.

  • Bolsheviks were then led by Vladimir.

  • The remains of the mutated body of Czar Nicholas II and his family were discovered later in the 1970s.

  • War started between the Reds and the Whites which was known as the Civil War.

  • Socialism arose in Russia.

  • Russia withdrew its name from World War 1

  • Independence of Finland, Baltics and Poland.

  • Establishment of dictatorship.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Short Notes

Social Change in Europe

A lot of changes started taking place in Europe after the French Revolution. People were inspired with the ideals of equality, justice and liberty. They started feeling that the government should work in a different way. The notes of History Class 9 Chapter 2 PDF tells you that while some wanted the monarchical form, some wanted democratic principles.

The three main groups were:

The Liberalists:

  • These people wanted a change in their society. They wanted a nation which was tolerant of religion.

  • They wanted to safeguard the rights of the citizens and wanted a Parliamentary Government.

  • They were not democrats and did not want a universal franchise.

The Radicals:

  • Radicals wanted an elected government by the citizens of the country.

  • They supported women’s right to vote.

  • They were against the factory owners and landowners.

The Conservatives:

  • They opposed all the ideologies and views of the radicals and the liberals.

  • They wanted the wealthy class to continue enjoying their privileges and facilities.

  • They wanted a gradual change in society and respected the past.

Class 9 History Chapter 2 Notes

From the History Class 9 Chapter 2 notes, you will come to know the following:

  1. The ideas of socialism had become popular in Europe by the 19th century. It was believed that because of the efforts made by the peasants, the factory workers became wealthy. However, they did not care about the welfare of their workers.

  2. Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx wanted the properties to be under society as the profit of the factory was because of the workers.

  3. A Socialist Democratic Party in Germany, a Socialist Party in France and a Labour Party in Britain was formed.

Russian Revolution and India

The notes of History Class 9 Chapter 2 tell us about the impact of the Russian Revolution in India as well:

  1. India was impacted upon by the Russian Revolution. People from all over India took part in Communist Universities.

  2. India formed its Communist party by the mid-1920s.

  3. Tagore and Jawaharlal Nehru wrote about Soviet Socialism.

  4. Various Indian writers wrote about the Russian Revolution.

  5. Several prominent leaders from India visited Russia in order to know about the principles of Socialism.

Benefits of CBSE Class 9 Revision Notes for History Chapter 2 - Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

CBSE Class 9 Revision Notes for History Chapter 2 - "Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution" offer a multitude of benefits to students. Firstly, these notes provide a condensed and structured overview of the chapter's content, serving as a quick reference for students preparing for their exams. They simplify complex historical events, ideologies, and revolutions, making it easier for students to grasp and remember key concepts. These revision notes are an ideal tool for last-minute preparation, enabling students to revise the entire chapter efficiently. Moreover, they encourage active learning by summarizing the essential points, promoting better retention of historical facts and events. In essence, these revision notes are an invaluable aid for Class 9 students, fostering a deeper understanding of the historical context and the impact of socialism and revolution on the world.

Did You Know?

  • The different causes of the Russian Revolution were Czar Nicholas II’s weak leadership, Bloody Sunday, March Revolution and low wages and poor condition of the lower caste.

  • The October Revolution was also called the Great October Socialist Revolution because of an official term in the Soviet Union.

  • The February Revolution started when the scarcity of food and riots happened in Petrograd.


CBSE Class 9 Revision Notes for History Chapter 2 - "Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution" by Vedantu serve as a vital resource for students. These notes offer a concise and well-organized summary of complex historical events, ideologies, and revolutions, facilitating better understanding and retention of key concepts. Vedantu's commitment to quality education is evident in these notes, which are thoughtfully curated to align with the CBSE curriculum. They empower students to streamline their revision efforts, particularly in the context of socialism and the Russian Revolution, ensuring comprehensive exam preparation. Ultimately, these revision notes play a pivotal role in enhancing students' historical knowledge and analytical skills, contributing to their academic success in Class 9 history.

FAQs on CBSE Class 9 Revision Notes for History Chapter 2 - Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

1. Name Four Socialists and/or Philosophers and Their Vision of the Future or How They Thought they Would Transform Society.

The four notable visionaries who dreamt of a socialist Europe are:

  • Robert Owen, an English socialist and a manufacturer, tried to make a cooperative community and named it New Harmony, placed in Indiana (USA).

  • France philosopher Louis Blanc wanted the government of the country to encourage its cooperatives to replace capitalists.

  • Karl Marx wanted the workers to free themselves from exploitation and have their own control.

  • Another person who was against capitalism was Friedrich Engels.

2. What are the Three Reasons that Lead to the Civil War Between the Russian Army of Non-Bolsheviks and Bolsheviks?

The three reasons leading to the civil war between the Russian army of Non-Bolsheviks and Bolsheviks, as explained in the History Chapter 2 Class 9 notes are:

  • Impact of the Land Redistribution Policy on Soldiers: The Russian army started to break up after the Bolsheviks ordered the land redistribution. Peasants and soldiers wanted to go home for redistribution.

  • Opposition from Whites and Greens: Non-Bolsheviks liberals, socialist and supporters condemned the uprising of Bolsheviks. All the leaders organized their troops and moved towards south Russia.

  • Outside Force: The Whites and Greens were backed by American, French, Japanese and Britain troops. The forces were scared with the socialism growth in Russia.

3. What were the ideas of the socialists in Chapter 2 of Class 9 History?

The socialists believed in the rights of individuals. They wanted to form a government where the representatives would be elected by the people and the laws would be created by a well-trained judiciary that is independent of rulers and officials. The socialists were non democrats because they did not believe in the universal adult franchise. With many more important questions that are created by the experts, Vedantu offers Revision Notes for the students to help them prepare for their exams in a more organized way. The notes and solutions are present on Vedantu's official website ( and mobile app for free of cost.

4. What was socialism in Russia?

Socialism is the economic system where the state has control over all means of production. They believed that only with the help of the state, all the people would be equally benefited. They were against private ownership and believed in cooperatives. For more understanding of this chapter, students can visit the Vedantu website or the app to make use of the Revision Notes created by the subject experts to make the exam preparations easier and helpful to score well in the finals.

5. What is called the Russian Revolution in Chapter 2 of Class 9 History?

The Russian Revolution is also called the Russian Revolution of 1917 where a series of events that happened in Russia resulted in the abolition of the monarchy and the idea of socialism spread in the world. This revolution had a global level impact that changed the lives of the common people. This Russian revolution took place in the final phase of world war I, where it became the world’s first communist state replacing the monarchy. For students to revise better on the Russian Revolution, download the Revision Notes provided by the Vedantu (

6. Who is the father of socialism in Chapter 2 of Class 9 History?

The father of Socialism is Karl Marx. The book Communist Manifesto was published in the year 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The book was released just before the Revolution swept Europe and changed the lives of the common people all over the world. Revision is an important phase when you prepare for the exams, Vedantu offers revision notes for the concepts which are carefully prepared by the experts. Download the free pdf of revision notes and start your preparations to ace the exams.

7. What are the main topics in the revision notes of Chapter 2 Class 9 History?

The topics that are covered in the revision notes are The Age of Social Change, The Global Influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR, The Russian Revolution, What Changed after October, and The February Revolution in Petrograd. Students can make use of the revision notes to get well versed in all the chapters and prepare for their finals. Students can download the pdf of revision notes prepared by the subject experts at the Vedantu website for free of cost.