# NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 7

## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 7 - Integrals NCERT Solutions for Integration Class 12 PDF can be downloaded now from the official website of Vedantu. Subjects matter experts at Vedantu are deft in preparing tailor-made solutions for the Integrals Class 12 chapter taking into consideration all the needs of a student and provide tremendous help with managing their studies with efficiency. Their expertise in the education industry has made them highly capable to give unique and simple solutions to problems that may look daunting to students. But as you go through Integration Class 12 NCERT solutions on our portal, you would realize that even the most difficult problem can be handled with simplicity and ease.

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### 7.1 Introduction

In Ch 7 Maths Class 12, the introduction part delves into the history of differential calculus and how integral calculus came into existence. You would learn how the original idea of derivative came about to solve the problem of defining tangent lines to the graphs of functions. It also deals with calculating the slope of these tangent lines.

This chapter will introduce the prime concept of the integral calculus, which involves trying to find the area bounded by the graph of these functions. You would learn how integration and differentiation are interrelated, and integration is the reverse process of differentiation. In differentiation, we are given a function, and we need to figure out the differentiation of that function. Conversely, in integration, you are given the differential of a function, and we need to find the function.

### Other Key Concepts Discussed in This Chapter Are

• What are indefinite integrals and how they are denoted

• What are definite integrals

• How the connection between the fundamentals of indefinite integrals and definite integrals serve as a practical tool for engineering and science. This connection is termed as the fundamental theorem of calculus.

With many different kinds of exercises and solved problems in this NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 7 you can easily revise all that you learn on this topic.

### 7.2 Integration as a Reverse Process of Differentiation

In NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chapter 7 Applications of Derivatives, you would learn how one can find the integral of a function given its derivative. The other name of integral is also anti-differentiation. You would understand terms like “arbitrary constant” which are varied to get different integrals of any given function. This “arbitrary constant” is also known as “constant of integration” and for any arbitrary real number K, ∫f(x) dx = F(x) + K. This is indefinite integral. You will get acquainted with a lot of basic formulas and properties of the indefinite integral in this section and how it is interpreted geometrically.

This chapter would take you through a comparison between integration and differentiation and you will realize a few basics about these 2 parts of calculus like:

• Differentiation and integration are operations on functions

• They both satisfy linearity properties.

• There could be functions that are neither differentiable nor integrable.

• They differ in the sense differentiation of a function (wherever it exists) is a unique function while integral is not.

### 7.3 Methods of Integration

In this part of Integration NCERT Solutions, you will gain knowledge on other methods of finding integral apart from the method of inspection discussed in the above part. You would realize how this method is useful when an inspection is not suitable for many different kinds of functions. Here you will understand 3 different ways of integration i.e.:

• By Substitutions – This is used when a variable is substituted by another suitable variable it makes the integration process easier. So, if I = ∫f(x)dx and we put x = g(t) then we can write I = ∫ f[g(t)] g'(t) dt

• Using Partial Functions – If there are 2 polynomials p1(x) and p2(x) on x where p2(x) <>0 and degrees of p1(x) > p2(x) then we can say:

p1(x)/ p2(x) = t(x) + p’(x)/ p2(x). Here t(x) is a polynomial in x which is easily integrated and degree of p’(x) < degree of p2(x).

• By Parts – If there are 2 functions f1(x) and f2(x) then we can say ∫[ f1(x)  f2(x)] dx = f1(x) ∫f2(x)] dx – ∫{f'(x) ∫f2(x)] dx} dx. This method is not applicable to the product of functions in all the cases like it will not work for ∫√x sin x dx.

You would further learn how to integrate using trigonometric identities for trigonometric functions with the use of many known trigonometric identities like:

• Sin2 Ө + Cos2 Ө = 1

• 2 Sin Ө Cos Ө = Sin 2 Ө

• 2 Sin Ө1. Cos Ө2 = Sin (Ө1 + Ө2) + Sin (Ө1 - Ө2)

### 7.4 Integrals of Some Particular Functions

In this part of NCERT Class 12 Maths Chapter 7 Solutions, you would learn many important integral formulas and how to apply them for many other standard integrals that are related to them. These short cut techniques provided in our solutions to problems on Integration Class 12 will help immensely in tackling many types of questions really fast.

You will also understand how to prove these standard integrals, some of those are mentioned below:

• ∫ dx/ (x2 – b2) = 1/2b log |x – b/x + a| + C

• ∫ dx/ (x2 + b2) = 1/b tan-1 x/b + C

• ∫ dx/ (√x2 + b2) = log |x + √x2 + b2| + C

### 7.5 Integration by Partial Functions

This unit of Chapter 7 Class 12 Maths NCERT solutions further expands what you learned in unit 7.3 about integration by partial functions. In this section, you would learn how an improper rational function can be converted into a proper rational function by a long division process. An improper rational function is the one where for 2 polynomials p1(x) and p2(x) on x,  p2(x) <>0 and degrees of p1(x) > p2(x) t.

You will learn here how to disintegrate an equation into parts and find the integral of each of the parts. This is known as partial fraction decomposition.

### 7.6 Integration by Parts

This part would teach you methods on how to integrate products of functions. This method is also called partial integration. If for a single variable a, there are 2 differentiable functions f1 and f2, then by applying product rule of differentiation we can write d (f1f2)/da = f1df2/da + f2 df1/da.

You would then learn how to apply integration on both sides and conclude that integral of the product of 2 functions is given by:

(1st function) * (integral of the 2nd function) – Integral of [(differential coefficient of 1st function) * (integral of the 2nd function)]

### 7.7 Definite Integral

In this section, you will closely learn about what a definite integral is. You would learn how to denote a definite integral and its notation; $\int_{a}^{b}f(x)dx$ . In this, a is the lower limit and b is the upper limit of the integral.

You would also learn how to represent a definite integral either as a limit of a sum or an antiderivative in the interval [a, b].

### 7.8 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

In this chapter, you would learn how concepts of integration and differentiation of a function are linked. This is done by calculating the anti-derivative difference at the upper and lower limits of the integration process.

### You Would Learn The Following

• Area function - $\int_{a}^{b}f(x)dx$ defines the area of the curve y = f(x) which is bounded by ordinates of the x line (a and b). So, we can say that the area A(x) = $\int_{a}^{b}f(x)dx$

• First fundamental theorem of integral calculus – A’(x) = f(x) for all x ε [a,b], where f is a continuous function on the closed interval [a,b].

• 2nd fundamental theorem of integral calculus - $\int_{a}^{b}f(x)dx$ = [F(x)]ba = F(b) – F(a), here f - is a continuous function on the closed interval [a,b]

F – antiderivative of f.

### 7.9 Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution

In this chapter, you would learn steps to evaluate definite integrals $\int_{a}^{b}f(x)dx$ , by substitution as described below:

• Reduce the given integral to a known form by replacing y = f(x) and x = q(y) (considering the integral without limits).

• Now integrate the new integrand without mentioning the constant of integration.

### 7.10 Some Properties of Definite Integral

Here you will learn many properties of definite integral which will simplify the process of evaluating definite integrals. Some of the properties mentioned are as below:

• $\int_{a}^{b}f(x)dx$ = $\int_{a}^{b}f(t)dt$

• $\int_{0}^{2p}f(x)dx$ = $\int_{0}^{p}f(x)dx$ + $\int_{o}^{p}f(2p-x)dx$

• $\int_{0}^{p}f(x)dx$ = $\int_{0}^{p}f(p-x)dx$

• $\int_{a}^{b}f(x)dx$ = $\int_{a}^{p}f(x)dx$ + $\int_{p}^{b}f(x)dx$

You will also learn how to prove all these properties in this section of Integrals Class 12 Notes Maths Chapter 7.

### Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 7

Maths is a difficult subject for many students and sometimes you might struggle in finding the right solution. That is why a readymade solution by experienced teachers is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to master the subject and also prepare for various prestigious competitive exams. You will benefit immensely from these Maths NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chapter 7 because:

• You get to know the right way of cracking difficult sums by a team of experts who will provide the best way of approaching any problem.

• The solutions would be a quick way of revising all the major formulas mentioned in the chapter.

• The online solutions can be accessed anytime, and our teachers will guide if you need it.

• Solutions will help boost your confidence and check your preparedness for exams.

1. What is integral in simple terms?

In Calculus, an integral is often referred to as the area under a curve. As mathematical functions can be represented on a graph paper, the area enclosed between the curve of a function and the x-axis is the integral value of that particular equation. You will come across a list of formulas for calculating the integration of various functions, in class 12 calculus. Integral is also known as anti-derivative and you may observe that the integration formulas for some functions are just the reverse of that of their differentiation formulas. Integral calculus is one of the most important topics of Class 12 Mathematics.

2. What is the difference between definite and indefinite integrals?

When the upper and lower limits are given for an integral, it is called a definite integral. While calculating the definite integration of a given function f(x), for upper limit a, and lower limit b, it must be noted that you are calculating the area under the curve f(x) from x=a to x=b. Unlike definite integrals, upper and lower limits are not provided for indefinite integrals. So, you calculate a generic integral value for a family of similar functions f(x), in indefinite integral, where ‘x’ can have a range of solutions. Also, there is a notation for additive constant, C, written along with the indefinite integral value of any function.

3. Is Class 12 integral calculus difficult to understand?

No, Class 12 integral calculus is not much difficult to understand, instead it is one of the most interesting topics in the Maths syllabus 12th boards. The basic sums of integration can be solved if you have a good knowledge of the integration formulas for various types of functions. Also, understanding the concepts of integral calculus becomes easier if you have proper knowledge of derivatives. Integration is also termed as the antiderivative. A good understanding of all the concepts of integral calculus introduced in Class 12 is very essential. These concepts lay the foundation of the theories of advanced mathematics and statistical studies.

4. Where can I find reliable NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 7- Integrals online?

You can find reliable NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 7 - Integrals on Vedantu. The NCERT solutions on Vedantu are prepared by our team of subject matter experts and are among the best-rated integral solutions available online. All the sums of NCERT Class 12 Maths Chapter 7 are worked out in a stepwise manner so that students can verify their own solutions. This also helps them to identify their mistakes. Our subject matter experts have followed the updated CBSE guidelines for Class 12, for preparing the NCERT Maths solutions for integrals. You can download these NCERT solutions for free and you can refer to them for practice purposes.

5. What is the meaning of integrals in NCERT Class 12 Maths Chapter 7?

Integrals in Mathematical language can be described as a generalization of area or area under a curve of a function. They come under the topic of calculus along with derivatives. It can also be represented as a numerical value. Learning about integrals and derivatives can be fun and interesting but at the same time, thorough practice is needed as integrals are often very tricky and there can be multiple ways of solving the same problem.

6. Where can I download the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 7 PDF online?

• Visit the page-NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths.

• Choose the chapter of your choice, here, it is Chapter 7

• The webpage with Vedantu’s solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 7 will open.

For more efficient doubt clearing sessions or other help, one can visit the Vedantu site and avail their help for cracking exams and achieving good marks. The students are advised to first try out the exercises based on their knowledge and practice before referring to the solution so that they can get a clear idea as to where they are lacking behind.

7. Why are integrals so hard?

If any student skips any topic or finds it hard to grasp the basic idea of any topic, integrals could be a nightmare for that student. Hence, it is crucial that you practice all different types of sums and get used to the different difficulty levels of the questions. Practice as many sums as you can to completely understand any topic.

8. What do you mean by differentiation?

Differentiation is a technique for determining a function's derivative. Differentiation is a mathematical procedure for determining the instantaneous rate of change of a function depending on one of its variables. The most prominent example is velocity, which is the rate of change of displacement with respect to time. It is an important topic and hence must be practised judiciously.

9. What are definite and indefinite integrals?

In cases when the lower and upper bounds are constants, the number can be represented or solved by a definite integral. There are several functions whose derivatives are represented by the indefinite integral, and they are called f's. Any two functions in the same family will always be distinct from each other. For a detailed explanation of the same, you can visit Vedantu website and the app. SHARE TWEET SHARE SUBSCRIBE