## NCERT Solutions for Maths Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Class 12 - Free PDF Download

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 Relations and Functions contains answers to all the questions in the CBSE syllabus 2024-25. All exercise questions are solved in a step-by-step manner. Solving the questions in the Class 12 Maths NCERT textbook helps students understand the concept clearly. Students can download and study these NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths to improve their math skills.

- 6.1Exercise 1.1

- 6.2Exercise 1.2

- 6.3Miscellaneous Exercise

- 8.11.1 Introduction

- 8.21.2 Recall

- 8.31.3 Types of Functions

- 8.41.5 Binary Operations

To master the chapter Relations and Functions, students must learn both the fundamentals and the advanced sections. Practicing these NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths will assist students in their test preparation in such a way that they will find even the toughest questions from this chapter extremely simple. Download the NCERT Solutions PDF for this chapter using the link provided below.

## Glance on NCERT Solutions for Maths Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Class 12

Concept of Relations and Functions lays the groundwork by defining relations, functions, and the difference between the two.

Here, explore various classifications of relations and functions, including empty relations, reflexive relations, symmetric relations, transitive relations, one-one functions, onto functions, and inverse functions.

Domain and Range of a Function clarify the concept of domain, which is the set of input values for which the function is defined, and range, which is the set of all output values the function produces.

Learn how to identify inverse relations and understand the conditions required for a function to have an inverse.

Important Formulas used:

Domain of a function f: Df = {x ∈ X | f(x) ∈ Y}

Range of a function f: Rf = {f(x) ∈ Y | x ∈ X}

Article contains chapter notes, important questions, RD Sharma and RS Aggarwal Solutions and exercises link for chapter 1 - Relations and Functions, which you can download as PDFs.

There are three exercises (12 fully solved questions) in class 10th maths chapter 3 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables.

## Access Exercise Wise NCERT Solutions for Chapter 1 Maths Class 12

S.No. | Current Syllabus Exercises of Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 |

1 | NCERT Solutions of Class 12 Maths Relations and Functions Exercise 1.1 |

2 | NCERT Solutions of Class 12 Maths Relations and Functions Exercise 1.2 |

3 | NCERT Solutions of Class 12 Maths Relations and Functions Miscellaneous Exercise |

## NCERT Solutions for Maths Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Class 12

Chapter 1 of NCERT Class 12 Maths covers many forms of relations including equivalence relations, as well as function composition, invertible functions, and binary operations. Students can use relation and function class 12 NCERT Solutions as a quick reference to better understand complex topics.

This primary features of Chapter 1 include the following:

Empty relation

Universal relation

Reflexive relation

Symmetric relation

Transitive relation

Equivalence relation

A function $f: X \to Y$ is one-one (or injective) if $f(x_1) = f(x_2) \Rightarrow x_1 = x_2 \forall x_1, x_2 \in X$.

A function $f: X \to Y$ is onto (or surjective) if given any $y \in Y, \exists x \in X$ such that $f(x) = y$.

A function $f: X \to Y$ is one-one and onto (or bijective), if f is both one-one and onto.

A function $f: X \to Y$ is invertible if and only if f is one-one and onto.

## Exercises Under NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 Relations and Functions

Exercise 1.1: This exercise introduces the concept of relations and functions. Students will learn about the different types of relations, including reflexive, symmetric, and transitive relations, and practice identifying them. They will also learn about the different types of functions, including one-to-one, onto, and inverse functions, and practice identifying them.

Exercise 1.2: In this exercise, students will learn about the composition of functions and practice finding the composition of two or more functions. They will also learn about the inverse of a function and practice finding the inverse of a given function.

Miscellaneous Exercise: In this exercise, students will learn about the different types of relations, including equivalence relations, partial order relations, and total order relations. They will also practice identifying these relations and finding their properties.

Overall, this chapter is an introduction to the fundamental concepts of relations and functions, which are important building blocks for many topics in mathematics.

## Access NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 – Relations and Functions

### Exercise 1.1

1. Determine whether each of the following relations are reflexive, symmetric and transitive.

Relation $\text{R}$ in the set \[\text{A = }\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3}...\text{13, 14} \right\}\] defined as \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: 3x - y = 0} \right\}\]

Ans: The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{1, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 6} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 9} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{4, 12} \right) \right\}\]

Since \[\left( \text{1, 1} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 2} \right)\text{ }...\] and \[\left( \text{14, 14} \right)\notin R\].

We conclude that \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive.

Since \[\left( \text{1, 3} \right)\in \text{R}\], but \[\left( \text{3, 1} \right)\notin \text{R}\]. (since \[\text{3}\left( \text{3} \right)\text{-1}\ne \text{0}\])

We conclude that \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Since \[\left( \text{1, 3} \right)\] and \[\left( \text{3, 9} \right)\in \text{R}\], but\[\left( \text{1, 9} \right)\notin \text{R}\text{. }\left[ \text{3}\left( \text{1} \right)\text{-9}\ne \text{0} \right]\].

We conclude that \[\text{R}\] is not transitive.

Therefore, the relation \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive, symmetric or transitive.

Relation $\text{R}$ in the set \[\text{N}\] of natural numbers defined as \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: y = x + 5}\] and \[\text{x4 }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Ans: The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{1, 6} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 7} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 8} \right) \right\}\].

Since \[\left( \text{1, 1} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

We conclude that \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive.

Since \[\left( \text{1, 6} \right)\in \text{R}\] but \[\left( \text{6, 1} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

We conclude that \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

In the given relation \[\text{R}\] there is not any ordered pair such that \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\] and \[\left( \text{y, z} \right)\] both \[\in \text{R}\], therefore we can say that \[\left( \text{x, z} \right)\] cannot belong to \[\text{R}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is not transitive.

Hence, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive, symmetric or transitive.

Relation $\text{R}$in the set \[\text{A = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\] as \[\text{R= }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: y}\]is divisible by \[\text{x }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Ans: The given relation is \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{ : y}\] is divisible by \[\text{x }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

As we know that any number except \[\text{0}\] is divisible by itself, therefore \[\left( \text{x, x} \right)\in \text{R}\].

We conclude that \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Since \[\left( \text{2, 4} \right)\in \text{R}\] (because \[\text{4}\] is divisible by \[\text{2}\]), but \[\left( \text{4, 2} \right)\notin \text{R}\] (since \[\text{2}\] is not divisible by \[\text{4}\]).

We conclude that \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Assuming that \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\] and \[\left( \text{y, z} \right)\in \text{R}\], \[\text{y}\] is divisible by \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{z}\] is divisible by \[\text{y}\]. Hence \[\text{z}\] is divisible by \[\text{x}\Rightarrow \left( \text{x, z} \right)\in \text{R}\].

We conclude that \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Hence, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive and transitive but it is not symmetric.

Relation \[\text{R}\] in the set \[\text{Z}\] of all integers defined as \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x - y }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\] is as integer

Ans: The given relation is \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x - y}\] is an integer\[\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

If \[\text{x}\in \text{Z, }\left( \text{x, x} \right)\in \text{R}\] because \[\text{x-x = 0}\] is an integer.

Hence, we conclude that \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

For \[\text{x, y}\in \text{Z}\], if \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\in \text{R}\], then \[\text{x - y}\] is an integer and therefore \[\left( \text{y-x} \right)\] is also an integer.

Therefore, we conclude that \[\left( \text{y, x} \right)\in \text{R}\]and hence \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

Assuming that \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\] and \[\left( \text{y, z} \right)\in \text{R}\], where \[\text{x, y, z}\in \text{Z}\].

We can say that \[\left( \text{x-y} \right)\] and \[\left( \text{y-z} \right)\] are integers.

so, \[\left( \text{x, z} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Hence, we conclude that \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore the given relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive.

Relation \[\text{R}\] in the set \[\text{A}\] of human beings in a town at a particular time given by

The relation is: \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x and y}\] work at the same place\[\}\]

Ans: The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x}\] and \[\text{y}\] work at the same place\[\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

This implies that \[\left( \text{x, x} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Hence, we conclude that \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Now, \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\in \text{R}\], then \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{y}\] work at the same place, which means \[\text{y}\] and \[\text{x}\] also work at the same place. Therefore, \[\left( \text{y, x} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Hence, we conclude that \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

Let us assume that \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{y, z} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Then, we can say that \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{y}\] work at the same place and \[\text{y}\] and \[\text{z}\] work at the same place. Which means that \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{z}\] also work at the same place.

Therefore, \[\left( \text{x, z} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Hence, we conclude that \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.

The relation is: \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x and y}\] live in the same locality\[\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Ans: The given relation is \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x and y}\] live in the same locality\[\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Since, \[\left( \text{x, x} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Therefore, we conclude that \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Since \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\in \text{R}\], \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{y}\] live in the same locality. Therefore, \[\text{y}\] and \[\text{x}\] also live in the same locality, so, \[\left( \text{y, x} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

Let \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\in \text{R}\] and \[\left( \text{y, z} \right)\in \text{R}\]. Hence \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{y}\] live in the same locality and \[\text{y}\] and \[\text{z}\] also live in the same locality. Which means that \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{z}\] also live in the same locality.

Therefore, \[\left( \text{x, z} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Hence, we conclude that \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.

\[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x}\] is exactly \[\text{7}\]cm taller than \[\text{y }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Ans: The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x}\] is exactly \[\text{7}\] cm taller than \[\text{y }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Since, \[\left( \text{x, x} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Therefore, we conclude that \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive.

Let \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\in \text{R}\] , Since \[\text{x}\] is exactly \[\text{7}\] cm taller than \[\text{y}\], therefore \[\text{y}\] is obviously not taller than \[\text{x}\], so, \[\left( \text{y, x} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Assuming that \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{y, z} \right)\in \text{R}\], we can say that \[\text{x}\] is exactly \[\text{7}\] cm taller than \[\text{y}\]and \[\text{y}\] is exactly \[\text{7}\] cm taller than \[\text{z}\]. Which means that \[\text{x}\] is exactly \[\text{14}\] cm taller than \[\text{z}\]. So, \[\left( \text{x, z} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is not transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive, symmetric or transitive.

\[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x}\] is wife of \[\text{y }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Ans: The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x}\] is the wife of \[\text{y }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\].

Since, \[\left( \text{x, x} \right)\notin \text{R}\]

Therefore, we conclude that \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive.

Let \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\in \text{R}\] , Since \[\text{x}\] is the wife of \[\text{y}\], therefore \[\text{y}\] is obviously not the wife of \[\text{x}\], so, \[\left( \text{y, x} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Assuming that \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{y, z} \right)\in \text{R}\], we can say that \[\text{x}\] is the wife of \[\text{y}\]and \[\text{y}\] is the wife of \[\text{z}\], which is not possible. So, \[\left( \text{x, z} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is not transitive.

Therefore the given relation \[\text{R}\]is not reflexive, symmetric or transitive.

\[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x}\] is father of \[\text{y }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Ans: The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{: x}\] is the father of \[\text{y }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Since, \[\left( \text{x, x} \right)\notin \text{R}\]

Therefore, we conclude that \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive.

Let \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\in \text{R}\] , Since \[\text{x}\] is the father of \[\text{y}\], therefore \[\text{y}\] is obviously not the father of \[\text{x}\], so, \[\left( \text{y, x} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Assuming that \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{y, z} \right)\in \text{R}\], we can say that \[\text{x}\] is the father of \[\text{y}\]and \[\text{y}\] is the father of \[\text{z}\], then \[\text{x}\] is not the father of \[\text{z}\]. So, \[\left( \text{x, z} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is not transitive.

Therefore the given relation \[\text{R}\]is not reflexive, symmetric or transitive.

2. Show that the relation $\text{R}$ in the set $\text{R}$ of real numbers, defined \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: a}\le {{\text{b}}^{\text{2}}} \right\}\] is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive.

Ans: The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: a}\le {{\text{b}}^{\text{2}}} \right\}\]

Since \[\left( \dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{2}}\text{, }\dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{2}} \right)\notin \text{R}\]. (Since \[\dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{2}}\text{}{{\left( \dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{2}} \right)}^{\text{2}}}\])

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive.

Since \[\left( \text{1, 4} \right)\in \text{R}\] as \[\text{1}{{\text{4}}^{\text{2}}}\], but \[\left( \text{4, 1} \right)\notin \text{R}\] as \[{{\text{4}}^{2}}\] is not less than \[{{\text{1}}^{2}}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Assuming that \[\left( \text{3, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 1}\text{.5} \right)\in \text{R}\], so, \[\text{3}{{\text{2}}^{\text{2}}}\text{=4}\] and \[\text{2}{{\left( \text{1}\text{.5} \right)}^{\text{2}}}\text{=2}\text{.25}\] but \[\text{3}{{\left( \text{1}\text{.5} \right)}^{\text{2}}}\text{=2}\text{.25}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is not transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is neither reflexive, nor symmetric, nor transitive.

3. Check whether the relation $\text{R}$ defined in the set \[\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} \right\}\] as \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: b=a+1} \right\}\] is reflexive, symmetric or transitive.

Ans: The given relation is \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: b=a+1} \right\}\] defined in the set \[\text{A=}\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} \right\}\].

So, \[\text{R=}\left\{ \left( \text{1, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 4} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{4, 5} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{5, 6} \right) \right\}\]

Since, \[\left( \text{a, a} \right)\notin \text{R,a}\in \text{A}\].

\[\left( \text{1, 1} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{4, 4} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{5, 5} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{6, 6} \right)\notin \text{R}\]

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive

Since, \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\in \text{R}\], but \[\left( \text{2, 1} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Since \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 3} \right)\in \text{R}\], but \[\left( \text{1, 3} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is not transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is neither reflexive, nor symmetric, nor transitive

4. Show that the relation $\text{R}$ in $\text{R}$ defined as \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: a}\le \text{b} \right\}\] is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

Ans: The given relation is \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: a}\le \text{b} \right\}\].

Since, \[\left( \text{a, a} \right)\in R\].

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Since, \[\left( \text{2, 4} \right)\in R\] (as \[\text{2,4}\]), but \[\left( \text{4, 2} \right)\notin R\](as \[\text{4,2}\]).

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Assuming that \[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{b, c} \right)\in R\], \[\text{a}\le \text{b}\] and \[b\le c\], therefore, \[a\le c\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

5. Check whether the relation $\text{R}$ in $\text{R}$ defined as \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: a}\le {{\text{b}}^{\text{3}}} \right\}\] is reflexive, symmetric or transitive.

Ans: The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: a}\le {{\text{b}}^{\text{3}}} \right\}\]

Since \[\left( \dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{2}}\text{, }\dfrac{\text{1}}{8} \right)\notin \text{R}\].(Since \[\dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{2}}\] is not less than \[\dfrac{\text{1}}{8}\])

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive.

Since \[\left( \text{1, 4} \right)\in \text{R}\] as \[\text{1}{{\text{4}}^{\text{3}}}\], but \[\left( \text{4, 1} \right)\notin \text{R}\] as \[\text{4}\] is not less than \[{{\text{1}}^{\text{3}}}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Assuming that \[\left( \text{3, }\dfrac{\text{3}}{\text{2}} \right)\text{, }\left( \dfrac{\text{3}}{\text{2}}\text{, }\dfrac{\text{6}}{\text{5}} \right)\in \text{R}\], so, \[\text{3}{{\left( \dfrac{\text{3}}{\text{2}} \right)}^{\text{3}}}\] and \[\dfrac{\text{3}}{\text{2}}\text{}{{\left( \dfrac{\text{6}}{\text{5}} \right)}^{\text{3}}}\] but \[\text{3}{{\left( \dfrac{\text{6}}{\text{5}} \right)}^{\text{3}}}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is not transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is neither reflexive, nor symmetric, nor transitive.

6. Show that the relation $\text{R}$ in the set \[\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3} \right\}\] given by \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{1, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 1} \right) \right\}\] is symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.

Ans: The given relation is \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{1, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 1} \right) \right\}\] on the set \[\text{A=}\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3} \right\}\].

Since \[\left( \text{1, 1} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 3} \right)\notin \text{R}\]

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive.

Since, \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\in R\] and \[\left( \text{2, 1} \right)\in R\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

Since, \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\in R\] and \[\left( \text{2, 1} \right)\in R\], but \[\left( \text{1, 1} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is not transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.

7. Show that the relation $\text{R}$ in the set \[\text{A}\] of all the books in a library of a college, given by \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x,}\,\,\text{y} \right)\text{: x}\] and \[\text{y}\] have same number of pages\[\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\] is an equivalence relation.

Ans: The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{x,}\,\,\text{y} \right)\text{: x}\] and \[\text{y}\] have the same number of pages\[\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Since \[\left( \text{x, x} \right)\notin \text{R}\] as \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{x}\] have the same number of pages.

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Let \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\in R\], so \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{y}\] have the same number of pages, therefore \[\text{y}\] and \[\text{x}\] will also have the same number of pages.

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

Assuming \[\left( \text{x, y} \right)\in R\] and \[\left( \text{y, z} \right)\in R\]. \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{y}\] have the same number of pages and \[\text{y}\] and \[\text{z}\] also have the same number of pages. Therefore, \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{z}\] will also have the same number of pages. So, \[\left( \text{x, z} \right)\in R\].

Hence, \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is an equivalence relation.

8. Show that the relation $\text{R}$ in the set \[\text{A=}\left\{ \text{1, 2, }\!\!~\!\!\text{ 3, 4, 5} \right\}\] given by \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: }\left| \text{a-b} \right|\] is even\[\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\], is an equivalence relation. Show that all the elements of \[\left\{ \text{1, }\!\!~\!\!\text{ 3, 5} \right\}\] are related to each other and all the elements of \[\left\{ \text{2, 4} \right\}\] are related to each other. But no element of \[\left\{ \text{1, }\!\!~\!\!\text{ 3, 5} \right\}\] is related to any element of \[\left\{ \text{2, 4} \right\}\].

Ans: Let \[\text{a}\in \text{A}\],

So, \[\left| \text{a-a} \right|\text{ = 0}\] (which is an even number).

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Let \[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\in \text{R}\],

Now, \[\left| \text{a-b} \right|\] is even,

Hence \[\left| \text{a-b} \right|\] and \[\left| \text{b-a} \right|\] are both even

Therefore, \[\left( \text{b, a} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is symmetric

Let \[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\in \text{R}\]and \[\left( \text{b, c} \right)\in \text{R}\],

\[\Rightarrow \left| \text{a-b} \right|\] is even and \[\left| \text{b-c} \right|\] is even

\[\Rightarrow \left| \text{a-c} \right|\] is even.

\[\Rightarrow \left( \text{a, c} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is an equivalence relation.

All the elements of the set \[\left\{ \text{1, }\!\!~\!\!\text{ 3, 5} \right\}\] are all odd. Hence, the modulus of the difference of any two elements will be an even number. So, all the elements of this set are related to each other.

All elements of \[\left\{ \text{2, 4} \right\}\] are even while all the elements of \[\left\{ \text{1, }\!\!~\!\!\text{ 3, 5} \right\}\] are odd so no element of \[\left\{ \text{1, }\!\!~\!\!\text{ 3, 5} \right\}\] can be related to any element of\[\left\{ 2,\text{ }4 \right\}\].

Therefore, the absolute value of the difference between the two elements (from each of these two subsets) will not be an even value.

9. Show that each of the relation $\text{R}$ in the set \[\text{A = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ x}\in \text{Z: 0}\le \text{x}\le \text{12 }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\] , is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all elements related to 1 in each case.

\[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{ : }\left| \text{a -- b} \right|\] is a multiple of \[\text{4 }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]

Ans: The given set \[\text{A = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ x}\in \text{Z: 0}\le \text{x}\le \text{12 }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ = }\left\{ \text{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12} \right\}\]

The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{ : }\left| \text{a -- b} \right|\] is a multiple of \[\text{4 }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\].

Let \[a\in A\],

\[\left( \text{a, a} \right)\in R\] as \[\left| \text{a-a} \right|\text{=0}\] is a multiple of \[\text{4}\].

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Let, \[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\in \text{R}\Rightarrow \left| \text{a-b} \right|\] is a multiple of \[\text{4}\].

\[\Rightarrow \left| \text{-}\left( \text{a-b} \right) \right|\text{=}\left| \text{b-a} \right|\] is a multiple of \[\text{4}\].

\[\Rightarrow \left( \text{b, a} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

\[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{b, c} \right)\in R\].

\[\Rightarrow \left| \text{a-b} \right|\] is a multiple of \[\text{4}\] and \[\left| \text{b-c} \right|\] is a multiple of \[\text{4}\].

\[\Rightarrow \left( \text{a-b} \right)\] is a multiple of \[\text{4}\] and \[\left( \text{b-c} \right)\] is a multiple of \[\text{4}\].

\[\Rightarrow \left( \text{a-c} \right)\text{=}\left( \text{a-b} \right)\text{+}\left( \text{b-c} \right)\] is a multiple of \[\text{4}\].

\[\Rightarrow \left| \text{a-c} \right|\] is a multiple of \[\text{4}\].

\[\Rightarrow \left( \text{a, c} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is an equivalence relation.

The set of elements related to 1 is \[\left\{ \text{1, }\!\!~\!\!\text{ 5, 9} \right\}\]

\[\text{ }\!\!~\!\!\text{ R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{ : a = b} \right\}\]

Ans: The given relation is: \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{ : a = b} \right\}\].

\[a\in A,\left( \text{a, a} \right)\in R\], since \[\text{a = a}\].

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Let \[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\in \text{R}\Rightarrow \text{a=b}\].

\[\Rightarrow b\text{=a}\Rightarrow \left( \text{b, a} \right)\in R\]

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

\[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{b, c} \right)\in R\]

\[\Rightarrow a\text{=b}\] and \[b\text{=c}\]

\[\Rightarrow a\text{=c}\]

\[\Rightarrow \left( \text{a, c} \right)\in R\]

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is an equivalence relation.

The set of elements related to \[\text{1}\] is \[\left\{ \text{1} \right\}\].

10. Give an example of a relation. Which is

Symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.

Ans: Let us assume the relation \[\text{R= }\left\{ \left( \text{5, 6} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{6, 5} \right) \right\}\] in set \[\text{A= }\left\{ \text{5, 6, 7} \right\}\].

So, the relation \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive as \[\left( \text{5, 5} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{6, 6} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{7, 7} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

The relation \[\text{R}\] is symmetric as \[\left( \text{5, 6} \right)\in R\] and \[\left( \text{6, 5} \right)\in R\].

The relation \[\text{R}\] is not transitive as \[\left( \text{5, 6} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{6, 5} \right)\in R\] , but \[\left( \text{5, 5} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Therefore, the given relation \[\text{R}\] is symmetric but not reflexive or transitive.

Transitive but neither reflexive nor symmetric.

Ans: Let us assume the relation \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{ : a b} \right\}\]

So, the relation \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive because for \[a\in R\], \[\left( \text{a, a} \right)\notin \text{R}\] since a cannot be strictly less than itself.

Let \[\left( {1,2} \right) \in R\left( {as1 < 2} \right)\]

Since \[\text{2}\] is not less than \[\text{1}\], \[\left( \text{2, 1} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Let \[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{b, c} \right)\in R\].

\[\Rightarrow \left( \text{a, c} \right)\in R\]

Therefore, \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

So, the relation \[\text{R}\] is transitive but not reflexive and symmetric.

Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

Ans: Let us assume the relation \[R=\left\{ \left( \text{4, 4} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{6, 6} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{8, 8} \right),\text{ }\left( \text{4, 6} \right),\text{ }\left( \text{6, 4} \right),\text{ }\left( \text{6, 8} \right),\text{ }\left( \text{8, 6} \right) \right\}\] in set \[\text{A= }\left\{ \text{4, 6, 8} \right\}\].

The relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive since for \[a\in R\], \[\left( \text{a, a} \right)\in R\].

The relation \[\text{R}\] is symmetric since \[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\in R\Rightarrow \left( \text{b, a} \right)\in R\] for \[a,b\in R\].

The relation \[\text{R}\] is not transitive since \[\left( \text{4, 6} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{6, 8} \right)\in R\], but \[\left( \text{4, 8} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Therefore the relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

Ans: Let us take the relation \[\text{ }\!\!~\!\!\text{ R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{ : }{{\text{a}}^{\text{3}}}\ge {{\text{b}}^{\text{3}}} \right\}\].

Since \[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Since \[\left( \text{2, 1} \right)\in \text{R}\], but \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\notin \text{R}\],

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

Let \[\left( {a,b} \right),\left( {b,c} \right) \in R\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{a}}^{\text{3}}}\ge {{\text{b}}^{\text{3}}}\] and \[{{\text{b}}^{\text{3}}}\ge {{\text{c}}^{\text{3}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{a}}^{\text{3}}}\ge {{\text{c}}^{\text{3}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \left( \text{a, c} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore the relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive.

Ans: Let us take a relation \[\text{R=}\left\{ \left( \text{-5, -6} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{-6, -5} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{-5, -5} \right) \right\}\] in set \[\text{A=}\left\{ \text{-5, -6} \right\}\].

The relation \[\text{R}\] is not reflexive as \[\left( \text{-6, -6} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Since \[\left( \text{-5, -6} \right)\in \text{R}\] and \[\left( \text{-6, -5} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

Since \[\left( \text{-5, -6} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{-6, -5} \right)\in \text{R}\] and \[\left( \text{-5, -5} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore the relation \[\text{R}\] is symmetric and transitive but not reflexive.

11. Show that the relation $\text{R}$ in the set \[\text{A}\] of points in a plane given by \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{P, Q} \right)\text{ :}\] Distance of the point \[\text{P}\] from the origin is same as the distance of the point \[\text{Q}\] from the origin}, is an equivalence relation. Further, show that the set of all points related to a point \[\text{P}\ne \left( \text{0, 0} \right)\] is the circle passing through \[\text{P}\] with origin as centre.

Ans: The given relation is \[\text{ }\!\!~\!\!\text{ R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( \text{P, Q} \right)\text{ :}\] Distance of \[\text{P}\] from the origin is the same as the distance of \[\text{Q}\] from the origin}

Since, \[\left( \text{P, P} \right)\in \text{R}\].

The relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Let \[\left( \text{P, Q} \right)\in \text{R}\], distance of \[\text{P}\] from the origin is the same as the distance of \[\text{Q}\] from the origin similarly distance of \[\text{Q}\] from the origin will be the same as the distance of \[\text{P}\] from the origin. So, \[\left( \text{Q, P} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

Let \[\left( \text{P, Q} \right),\left( \text{Q, S} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Distance of \[\text{P}\] from the origin is the same as the distance of \[\text{Q}\] from the origin and distance of \[\text{Q}\] from the origin is the same as the distance of \[\text{S}\] from the origin. So, the distance of \[\text{S}\] from the origin will be the same as the distance of \[\text{P}\] from the origin. So, \[\left( \text{P, S} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore the relation \[\text{R}\] is an equivalence relation.

The set of points related to \[\text{P}\ne \left( \text{0, 0} \right)\] will be those points whose distance from origin is same as distance of \[\text{P}\] from the origin and will form a circle with the centre as origin and this circle passes through \[\text{P}\].

12. Show that the relation $\text{R}$ is defined in the set \[\text{A}\] of all triangles as \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( {{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\text{ : }{{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\] is similar to \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}}\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\], is equivalence relation. Consider three right angle triangles \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\] with sides \[\text{3, 4, 5}\] and \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}}\] with sides \[\text{5, 12, 13}\] and \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{3}}}\] with sides \[\text{6, 8, 10}\]. Which triangles among \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}}\] and \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{3}}}\] are related?

Ans: The given relation is \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( {{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\text{ : }{{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\] is similar to \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}}\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\].

The relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive since every triangle is similar to itself.

If \[\left( {{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\in \text{R}\], then \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\] is similar to \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}}\].

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}}\] is similar to \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\].

\[\Rightarrow \left( {{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}}\text{, }{{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

Let \[\left( {{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\text{,}\left( {{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}}\text{, }{{\text{T}}_{\text{3}}} \right)\in \text{R}\].

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\] is similar to \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}}\] and \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{2}}}\] is similar to \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{3}}}\].

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\] is similar to \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{3}}}\].

\[\Rightarrow \left( {{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{T}}_{\text{3}}} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore the relation \[\text{R}\] is an equivalence relation.

\[\dfrac{\text{3}}{\text{6}}\text{=}\dfrac{\text{4}}{\text{8}}\text{=}\dfrac{\text{5}}{\text{10}}\left( \text{=}\dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{2}} \right)\]

Since, the corresponding sides of triangles \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\] and \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{3}}}\] are in the same ratio, therefore triangle \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\] is similar to triangle \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{3}}}\].

Hence, \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{1}}}\] is related to \[{{\text{T}}_{\text{3}}}\].

13. Show that the relation \[\text{R}\] defined in the set \[\text{A}\] of all polygons as \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( {{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\text{: }{{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\] and \[{{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}}\] have same number of sides\[\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\], is an equivalence relation. What is the set of all elements in \[\text{A}\] related to the right angle triangle \[\text{T}\] with sides \[\text{3, 4}\] and \[\text{5}\]?

Ans: \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( {{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\text{: }{{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\] and \[{{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}}\] have same number of sides\[\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\].

Since \[\left( {{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\in \text{R}\] , as same polygon has same number of sides.

The relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Let \[\left( {{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\in \text{R}\] .

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\] and \[{{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}}\] have same number of sides.

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}}\] and \[{{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\] have same number of sides.

\[\Rightarrow \left( {{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}}\text{, }{{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

Let \[\left( {{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\text{,}\left( {{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}}\text{, }{{\text{P}}_{\text{3}}} \right)\in \text{R}\].

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\] and \[{{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}}\] have same number of sides.

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{P}}_{\text{2}}}\] and \[{{\text{P}}_{\text{3}}}\] have same number of sides.

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\] and \[{{\text{P}}_{\text{3}}}\] have same number of sides.

\[\Rightarrow \left( {{\text{P}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{P}}_{\text{3}}} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore the relation \[\text{R}\] is an equivalence relation.

The elements in $A$ related to right-angled triangle \[\left( \text{T} \right)\] with sides \[\text{3, 4}\] and \[\text{5}\] are the polygons having \[\text{3}\] sides.

14. Let \[\text{L}\] be the set of all lines in \[\text{XY}\] plane and \[\text{R}\] be the relation in \[\text{L}\] defined as \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( {{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\text{: }{{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\] is parallel to \[{{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}}\]\[\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\]. Show that \[\text{R}\] is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all lines related to the line \[\text{y=2x+4}\].

Ans: \[\text{R = }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ }\left( {{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\text{: }{{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\] is parallel to \[{{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}}\text{ }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\].

The relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive as any line \[{{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\] is parallel to itself, so, \[\left( {{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Let \[\left( {{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\in \text{R}\].

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\] is parallel to \[{{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}}\], therefore \[{{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}}\] is parallel to \[{{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\].

\[\Rightarrow \left( {{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}}\text{, }{{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

Let \[\left( {{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\text{,}\left( {{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}}\text{, }{{\text{L}}_{\text{3}}} \right)\in \text{R}\].

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\] is parallel to \[{{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{L}}_{\text{2}}}\] is parallel to \[{{\text{L}}_{\text{3}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\] is parallel to \[{{\text{L}}_{\text{3}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \left( {{\text{L}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{L}}_{\text{3}}} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore the relation \[\text{R}\] is an equivalence relation.

Set of all lines related to the line \[\text{y=2x+4}\] is the set of all lines that are parallel to the line \[\text{y=2x+4}\].

Slope of line \[\text{y=2x+4}\] is \[\text{m = 2}\]. Therefore, lines parallel to the given line are of the form \[\text{y=2x+c}\], where \[\text{c}\in \text{R}\].

15. Let \[\text{R}\] be the relation in the set \[\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3, 4} \right\}\] given by \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{1, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{1, 1} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{4, 4} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{1, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 2} \right) \right\}\]. Choose the correct answer.

(A) \[\text{R}\] is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

(B) \[\text{R}\] is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

(C) \[\text{R}\] is symmetric and transitive but not reflexive.

(D) \[\text{R}\] is an equivalence relation

Ans: \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{1, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{1, 1} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{4, 4} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{1, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 2} \right) \right\}\].

Since \[\left( \text{a, a} \right)\in \text{R}\], for every \[\text{a}\in \left\{ \text{1, 2, 3, 4} \right\}\]

The relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Since \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\in \text{R}\] , but \[\left( \text{2, 1} \right)\notin \text{R}\] .

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is not symmetric.

\[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{,}\left( \text{b, c} \right)\in \text{R}\Rightarrow \left( \text{a, c} \right)\in \text{R}\] for all \[\text{a, b, c}\in \left\{ \text{1, 2, 3, 4} \right\}\].

Therefore \[\text{R}\] is transitive.

Therefore the relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

The correct answer is (\[B\]) \[\text{R}\] is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

16. Let \[\text{R}\] be the relation in the set N given by \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: a = b - 2, b > 6} \right\}\] Choose the correct answer.

(A) \[\left( \text{2, 4} \right)\in \text{R}\]

(B) \[\left( \text{3, 8} \right)\in \text{R}\]

(C) \[\left( \text{6, 8} \right)\in \text{R}\]

(D) \[\left( \text{8, 7} \right)\in \text{R}\]

Ans: The given relation is \[\text{R = }\left\{ \left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{: a = b - 2, b 6} \right\}\]

Now,

Considering \[\left( \text{2, 4} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Since, \[\text{b 6}\], so, \[\left( \text{2, 4} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Considering \[\left( \text{3, 8} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Since \[\text{3 }\ne \text{ 8 - 2}\], so \[\left( \text{3, 8} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

Considering \[\left( \text{6, 8} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Since \[\text{86}\] and \[\text{6=8-2}\], so \[\left( \text{6, 8} \right)\in \text{R}\].

Therefore, the correct answer is ($C$)\[\left( \text{6, 8} \right)\in \text{R}\].

### Exercise 1.2

1. Show that the function \[\text{f: }{{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\to {{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\] defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ =}\dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{x}}\] is one-one and onto, where \[{{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\] is the set of all non-zero real numbers. Is the result true, if the domain \[{{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\] is replaced by \[\text{N}\] with co-domain being same as \[{{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\]?

Ans: The function \[\text{f: }{{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\to {{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\] is defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ =}\dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{x}}\].

For \[\text{f}\] to be one – one:

\[\text{x, y}\in {{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{y} \right)\]

\[\Rightarrow \dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{x}}\text{=}\dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{y}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x = y}\]

Therefore, the given function \[\text{f}\] is one – one.

For \[\text{f}\] to be onto:

For \[\text{y}\in {{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\] there exists \[\text{x =}\dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{y}}\in {{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\] as \[\text{y}\ne \text{0}\] such that

\[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}\dfrac{\text{1}}{\left( \dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{y}} \right)}\text{= y}\]

Therefore, the given function \[\text{f}\] is onto.

Hence the given function \[\text{f}\] is one – one and onto.

Consider a function \[\text{g: N }\to {{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\] defined by \[\text{g}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}\dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{x}}\]

We have, \[\text{g}\left( {{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\text{=g}\left( {{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\Rightarrow \dfrac{\text{1}}{{{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}}}\text{=}\dfrac{\text{1}}{{{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}}}\Rightarrow {{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}}\text{=}{{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}}\]

Therefore the function \[\text{g}\] is one – one.

The function \[\text{g}\] is not onto as for \[\text{1}\text{.2}\in \text{=}{{\text{R}}_{\text{*}}}\] there does not exist any \[\text{x}\] in \[\text{N}\] such that \[\text{g}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ =}\dfrac{\text{1}}{\text{1}\text{.2}}\].

Therefore, the function \[\text{g}\] is one-one but not onto.

2. Check the injectivity and surjectivity of the following functions:

\[\text{f: N }\to \text{ N}\] given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}{{\text{x}}^{\text{2}}}\]

Ans: The given function \[\text{f: N }\to \text{ N}\] is defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}{{\text{x}}^{\text{2}}}\].

For \[\text{x, y}\in \text{N}\],

\[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{y} \right)\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{x}}^{\text{2}}}\text{ = }{{\text{y}}^{\text{2}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x = y}\]

Therefore the function \[\text{f}\] is injective.

Since \[\text{2}\in \text{N}\], but, there does not exist any \[\text{x}\] in \[\text{N}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=2}\].

Therefore the function \[\text{f}\] is not surjective.

Hence, the function \[\text{f}\] is injective but not surjective.

\[\text{f: Z }\to \text{ Z}\] given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}{{\text{x}}^{\text{2}}}\]

Ans: The given function \[\text{f: Z }\to \text{ Z}\] is defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}{{\text{x}}^{\text{2}}}\].

Since,

\[\text{f}\left( \text{-1} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{1} \right)\]

\[\text{= 1}\]

But \[\text{-1 }\ne \text{ 1}\]

Therefore the function \[\text{f}\] is not injective.

Since \[\text{-2}\in \text{Z}\], but, there does not exist any element \[\text{x}\in \text{Z}\] such that

\[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = -2}\]

Therefore the function \[\text{f}\] is not surjective.

Hence, the function \[\text{f}\] is neither injective nor surjective.

\[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}{{\text{x}}^{\text{2}}}\]

Ans: The given function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] is given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }{{\text{x}}^{\text{2}}}\]

Now,

\[\text{f}\left( \text{-1} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{1} \right)\]

\[\text{= 1}\]

But \[\text{-1 }\ne \text{ 1}\].

Therefore the function \[\text{f}\] is not injective.

Since \[\text{-2}\in \text{R}\], but, there does not exist any element \[\text{x}\in \text{R}\] such that

\[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = -2}\].

Therefore the function \[\text{f}\] is not surjective.

Hence, the function \[\text{f}\] is neither injective nor surjective.

\[\text{f: N }\to \text{ N}\] given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}{{\text{x}}^{\text{3}}}\]

Ans: The given function \[\text{f: N }\to \text{ N}\] is given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }{{\text{x}}^{\text{3}}}\]

For \[\text{x, y}\in \text{N}\],

\[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{y} \right)\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{x}}^{\text{3}}}\text{ = }{{\text{y}}^{\text{3}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x = y}\]

Therefore the function \[\text{f}\] is injective.

Since \[\text{2}\in \text{N}\], but, there does not exist any \[\text{x}\] in \[\text{N}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=2}\].

Therefore the function \[\text{f}\] is not surjective.

Hence, the function \[\text{f}\] is injective but not surjective.

\[\text{f: Z }\to \text{ Z}\]given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}{{\text{x}}^{\text{3}}}\]

Ans: The given function \[\text{f: Z }\to \text{ Z}\] is given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }{{\text{x}}^{\text{3}}}\]

For \[\text{x, y}\in \text{Z}\],

\[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{y} \right)\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{x}}^{\text{3}}}\text{ = }{{\text{y}}^{\text{3}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x = y}\]

Therefore the function \[\text{f}\] is injective.

Since \[\text{2}\in \text{Z}\], but, there does not exist any \[\text{x}\] in \[\text{Z}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=2}\].

Therefore the function \[\text{f}\] is not surjective.

Hence, the function \[\text{f}\] is injective but not surjective.

3. Prove that the Greatest Integer Function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }\left[ \text{x} \right]\], is neither one – one nor onto, where \[\left[ \text{x} \right]\] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to \[\text{x}\].

Ans: The function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] is defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }\left[ \text{x} \right]\].

Now,

\[\text{f}\left( \text{1}\text{.2} \right)\text{ = }\left[ \text{1}\text{.2} \right]\]

\[\text{= 1}\]

\[\text{f}\left( \text{1}\text{.9} \right)\text{ = }\left[ \text{1}\text{.9} \right]\]

\[\text{= 1}\]

Therefore, \[\text{f}\left( \text{1}\text{.2} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{1}\text{.9} \right)\], but \[\text{1}\text{.2}\ne \text{1}\text{.9}\].

Hence the function \[\text{f}\] is not one – one.

Taking \[0.7\in R\], \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }\left[ \text{x} \right]\] is an integer. There does not exist any element \[\text{x}\in \text{R}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = 0}\text{.7}\].

Therefore, the function \[\text{f}\] is not onto.

Hence, the greatest integer function is neither one – one nor onto.

4. Show that the Modulus Function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] given by \[\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }\left| \text{x} \right|\] is neither one – one nor onto, where \[\left| \text{x} \right|\] is\[x\] , if \[\text{x}\] is positive or \[\text{0}\] and \[\left| \text{x} \right|\] is\[\text{-x}\], if \[\text{x}\] is negative.

Ans: \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\]is \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }\left| \text{x} \right|\]

\[=\left\{ \begin{align}& \,\,\text{x;}\,\,\text{x0} \\ & \text{-x;}\,\,\text{x0} \\ \end{align} \right\}\]

Now,

\[\text{f}\left( \text{-1} \right)\text{ = }\left| \text{-1} \right|\]

\[\text{= 1}\]

\[\text{f}\left( \text{1} \right)\text{ = }\left| \text{1} \right|\]

\[\text{= 1}\]

Therefore, \[\text{f}\left( \text{1} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{-1} \right)\], but \[\text{-1 }\ne \text{ 1}\].

Hence the function \[\text{f}\] is not one – one.

Taking \[\text{-1}\in \text{R}\], \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }\left| \text{x} \right|\] is non-negative. Hence, there does not exist any element \[\text{x}\in \text{R}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = -1}\].

Therefore, the function \[\text{f}\] is not onto.

Therefore, the modulus function is neither one-one nor onto.

5. Show that the Signum Function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\], given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}\left\{ \begin{matrix}\text{1 if x0} \\\text{0, if x=0} \\ \text{-1 if x0} \\\end{matrix} \right\}\] is neither one-one nor onto.

Ans: The function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\]is given by

\[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}\left\{ \begin{matrix} \text{1 if x0} \\ \text{0, if x=0} \\ \text{-1 if x0} \\\end{matrix} \right\}\]

Now,

\[\text{f}\left( \text{1} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{2} \right)\]

\[\text{= 1}\]

But \[\text{1 }\ne \text{ 2}\]

Hence the function \[\text{f}\] is not one – one.

Since \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\] takes only \[\text{3}\] values \[\left( \text{1, 0, or -1} \right)\], for the element \[\text{-2}\] in co-domain

\[\text{R}\] , there does not exist any \[\text{x}\] in domain \[\text{R}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = -2}\].

Therefore, the function \[\text{f}\] is not onto.

Therefore, the Signum function is neither one-one nor onto.

6. Let \[\text{A = }\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3} \right\}\text{, B = }\left\{ \text{4, 5, 6, 7} \right\}\] and let \[\text{f = }\left\{ \left( \text{1, 4} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 5} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 6} \right) \right\}\] be a function from \[\text{A}\] to \[\text{B}\]. Show that \[\text{f}\] is one – one.

Ans: The function \[\text{f: A }\to \text{ B}\] is defined as \[\text{f = }\left\{ \left( \text{1, 4} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 5} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 6} \right) \right\}\]. Where \[\text{A = }\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3} \right\}\text{, B = }\left\{ \text{4, 5, 6, 7} \right\}\]

Since,

\[\text{f }\left( \text{1} \right)\text{ = 4}\]

\[\text{f }\left( \text{2} \right)\text{ = 5}\]

\[\text{f }\left( \text{3} \right)\text{ = 6}\]

Hence the images of distinct elements of \[\text{A}\] under \[\text{f}\] are distinct.

Therefore, the function \[\text{f}\] is one – one.

7. In each of the following cases, state whether the function is one – one, onto or bijective.

Justify your answer.

\[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = 3 - 4x}\].

Ans: The function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] is defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = 3 - 4x}\].

Taking \[{{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}}\in \text{R}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( {{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\text{ = f}\left( {{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\],

\[\Rightarrow \text{3- 4}{{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}}\text{ = 3- 4}{{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{-4}{{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}}\text{ = -4}{{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}}\text{ = }{{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}}\]

Hence the function \[\text{f}\] is one – one.

For any real number \[\left( \text{y} \right)\] in \[\text{R}\], there exists \[\dfrac{\text{3-y}}{\text{4}}\] in \[\text{R}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \dfrac{\text{3-y}}{\text{4}} \right)\text{=3-4}\left( \dfrac{\text{3-y}}{\text{4}} \right)\]

\[\text{=y}\]

So, function \[\text{f}\] is onto.

Therefore, function \[\text{f}\] is bijective.

\[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\]defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = 1 + }{{\text{x}}^{\text{2}}}\]

Ans: The function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\]defined as \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = 1 + }{{\text{x}}^{\text{2}}}\]

Taking \[{{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}}\in \text{R}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( {{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\text{ = f}\left( {{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\]

\[\Rightarrow\text{1+x}_{\text{1}}^{\text{2}}\text{=1+x}_{\text{2}}^{\text{2}}\]

\[\Rightarrow\text{x}_{\text{1}}^{\text{2}}\text{=x}_{\text{2}}^{\text{2}}\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}}\text{= }\!\!\pm\!\!\text{ }{{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}}\]

Hence the function \[\text{f}\] is not one – one because \[\text{f}\left( {{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\text{ = f}\left( {{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\] does not mean that \[{{\text{x}}_{\text{1}}}\text{=}{{\text{x}}_{\text{2}}}\].

Taking \[\text{-2}\in \text{R}\]. Since \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = 1 + }{{\text{x}}^{\text{2}}}\] is positive for all \[\text{x}\in \text{R}\], so there does not exist any \[\text{x}\] in domain \[\text{R}\] such that\[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = -2}\].

Therefore, the function \[\text{f}\] is not onto.

Hence, the function \[\text{f}\] is neither one – one nor onto.

8. Let \[\text{A}\] and \[\text{B}\] be sets. Show that \[\text{f: A }\!\!\times\!\!\text{ B }\to \text{ B }\!\!\times\!\!\text{ A}\] such that \[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{=}\left( \text{b, a} \right)\] is bijective function.

Ans: The function \[\text{f: A }\!\!\times\!\!\text{ B }\to \text{ B }\!\!\times\!\!\text{ A}\] is defined as \[\text{f}\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{ = }\left( \text{b, a} \right)\].

\[\left( {{\text{a}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{b}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\text{, }\left( {{\text{a}}_{\text{2}}}\text{, }{{\text{b}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\in \text{A }\!\!\times\!\!\text{ B}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( {{\text{a}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{b}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\text{ = f}\left( {{\text{a}}_{\text{2}}}\text{, }{{\text{b}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\]

\[\Rightarrow \left( {{\text{b}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{a}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\text{ = }\left( {{\text{b}}_{\text{2}}}\text{, }{{\text{a}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{b}}_{\text{1}}}\text{=}{{\text{b}}_{\text{2}}}\] and \[{{\text{a}}_{\text{1}}}\text{= }{{\text{a}}_{\text{2}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \left( {{\text{b}}_{\text{1}}}\text{, }{{\text{a}}_{\text{1}}} \right)\text{ = }\left( {{\text{b}}_{\text{2}}}\text{, }{{\text{a}}_{\text{2}}} \right)\]

Hence the function \[\text{f}\] is one – one.

For \[\left( \text{b, a} \right)\in \text{B }\!\!\times\!\!\text{ A}\],

There exists \[\left( \text{a, b} \right)\in \text{A }\!\!\times\!\!\text{ B}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{a, b} \right)\text{ = }\left( \text{b, a} \right)\]

So, function \[\text{f}\] is onto.

Therefore, the function \[\text{f}\] is bijective.

9. Let \[\text{f: N }\to \text{ N}\] be defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{n} \right)\text{ =}\left\{ \begin{matrix}\dfrac{\text{n+1}}{\text{2}}\text{, if n is odd} \\ \dfrac{\text{n}}{\text{2}}\text{, if n is even} \\\end{matrix} \right\}\] for all \[\text{n}\in \text{N}\]. State whether the function \[\text{f}\] is bijective. Justify your answer.

Ans: The function \[\text{f: N }\to \text{ N}\] is defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{n} \right)\text{ =}\left\{ \begin{matrix}\dfrac{\text{n+1}}{\text{2}}\text{, if n is odd} \\ \dfrac{\text{n}}{\text{2}}\text{, if n is even} \\\end{matrix} \right\}\] for all \[\text{n}\in \text{N}\].

Now,

\[\text{f(1)=}\dfrac{\text{1+1}}{\text{2}}\]

\[\text{=1}\]

\[\text{f(2)=}\dfrac{\text{2}}{\text{2}}\]

\[\text{=1}\]

Here, \[\text{f}\left( \text{1} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{2} \right)\], but \[\text{1 }\ne \text{ 2}\].

Hence the function \[\text{f}\] is not one – one.

Taking \[\text{n}\in \text{N}\];

Case I: \[\text{n}\] is odd

Hence \[\text{n = 2r + 1}\], for some \[\text{r}\in \text{N}\] there exists \[\text{4r + 1}\in \text{N}\] such that

\[\text{f}\left( \text{4r + 1} \right)\text{ =}\dfrac{\text{4r+1+1}}{\text{2}}\]

\[\text{=2r+1}\]

Case II: \[\text{n}\] is even

Hence, \[\text{n = 2r}\] for some \[\text{r}\in \text{N}\] there exists \[\text{4r}\in \text{N}\] such that

\[\text{f}\left( \text{4r} \right)\text{=}\dfrac{\text{4r}}{\text{2}}\]

\[\text{= 2r}\]

So, function \[\text{f}\] is onto.

Therefore, the function \[\text{f}\] is not bijective.

10. Let \[\text{A=R-}\left\{ \text{3} \right\}\] and \[\text{B = R - }\left\{ \text{1} \right\}\text{.}\] Consider the function \[\text{f:A}\to \text{B}\] defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}\left( \dfrac{\text{x-2}}{\text{x-3}} \right)\]. Is \[\text{f}\]one-one and onto? Justify your answer.

Ans: The function \[\text{f:A}\to \text{B}\] is defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}\left( \dfrac{\text{x-2}}{\text{x-3}} \right)\], where \[\text{A=R-}\left\{ \text{3} \right\}\] and \[\text{B = R - }\left\{ \text{1} \right\}\text{.}\]

For \[\text{x, y}\in \text{A}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=f}\left( \text{y} \right)\]

\[\Rightarrow\dfrac{\text{x-2}}{\text{x-3}}\text{=}\dfrac{\text{y-2}}{\text{y-3}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{(x--2)(y--3) = (y--2)(x--3)}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{xy--3x--2y + 6 = xy--2x--3y + 6}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{--3x--2y =}\,\text{--2x--3y}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x = y}\]

Hence the function \[\text{f}\] is one – one.

If \[\text{y}\in \text{B = R-}\left\{ \text{1} \right\}\], then \[\text{y}\ne \text{1}\].

The function \[\text{f}\] is onto if there exists \[\text{x}\in \text{A}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = y}\].

\[\Rightarrow \dfrac{\text{x-2}}{\text{x-3}}\text{=y}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x--2 = xy--3y}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x(1--y) =}\,\text{--3y + 2}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x=}\dfrac{\text{2-3y}}{\text{1-y}}\in \text{A }\!\![\!\!\text{ y}\ne \text{1 }\!\!]\!\!\text{ }\]

for any \[\text{y}\in \text{B}\], there exists \[\dfrac{\text{2-3y}}{\text{1-y}}\in \text{A}\] such that,

\[\text{f}\left( \dfrac{\text{2-3y}}{\text{1-y}} \right)\text{=}\dfrac{\left( \dfrac{\text{2-3y}}{\text{1-y}} \right)\text{-2}}{\left( \dfrac{\text{2-3y}}{\text{1-y}} \right)\text{-3}}\]

\[\text{=}\dfrac{\text{2-3y-2+2y}}{\text{2-3y-3+3y}}\]

\[\text{=}\dfrac{\text{-y}}{\text{-1}}\]

\[\text{=y}\]

So, function \[\text{f}\] is onto.

Hence, function f is one – one and onto.

11. Let \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] be defined as \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }{{\text{x}}^{\text{4}}}\]. Choose the correct answer.

\[\text{f}\] is one-one onto

\[\text{f}\] is many-one onto

\[\text{f}\] is one-one but not onto

\[\text{f}\] is neither one-one nor onto

Ans: The function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] is defined as \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }{{\text{x}}^{\text{4}}}\].

Taking \[\text{x, y}\in \text{A}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=f}\left( \text{y} \right)\]

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{x}}^{\text{4}}}\text{=}{{\text{y}}^{\text{4}}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x= }\!\!\pm\!\!\text{ y}\]

Therefore, \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{y} \right)\] does not necessarily mean that \[\text{x=y}\].

Hence the function \[\text{f}\] is not one – one.

For \[\text{2}\in \text{R}\], there does not exist any \[\text{x}\] in domain \[\text{R}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = 2}\].

So, function \[\text{f}\] is not onto.

Hence, The correct answer is (\[D\]) function \[f\] is neither one – one nor onto.

12. Let \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] be defined as\[\text{ f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = 3x}\]. Choose the correct answer.

\[\text{f}\] is one – one onto

\[\text{f}\] is many – one onto

\[\text{f}\] is one – one but not onto

\[\text{f}\] is neither one – one nor onto

Ans: The function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] is defined as \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = 3x}\].

Taking \[\text{x, y}\in \text{A}\] such that \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=f}\left( \text{y} \right)\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{3x = 3y}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x = y}\]

Hence the function \[\text{f}\] is one – one.

For \[\text{y}\in \text{R}\], there exists \[\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{3}}\] in \[\text{R}\] such that;

\[\text{f}\left( \dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{3}} \right)\text{=3}\left( \dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{3}} \right)\]

\[\text{=y}\]

So, function \[\text{f}\] is onto.

Therefore, the correct answer is ($A$) function \[\text{f}\] is one – one and onto.

### Miscellaneous Exercise

1. Show that function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ x}\in \text{R:-1 x 1 }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\] defined by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}\dfrac{\text{x}}{\text{1+ }\!\!|\!\!\text{ x }\!\!|\!\!\text{ }}\text{,x}\in \text{R}\] is one – one and onto function.

Ans: The function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ }\!\!\{\!\!\text{ x}\in \text{R:-1 x 1 }\!\!\}\!\!\text{ }\] is defined as \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{=}\dfrac{\text{x}}{\text{1+ }\!\!|\!\!\text{ x }\!\!|\!\!\text{ }}\text{,x}\in \text{R}\].

For the function \[\text{f}\] to be one – one:

\[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{y} \right)\], where \[\text{x, y}\in \text{R}\].

\[\Rightarrow \dfrac{\text{x}}{\text{1+ }\!\!|\!\!\text{ x }\!\!|\!\!\text{ }}\text{=}\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1+ }\!\!|\!\!\text{ y }\!\!|\!\!\text{ }}\]

Assuming that \[\text{x}\] is positive and \[\text{y}\] is negative:

\[\dfrac{\text{x}}{\text{1+x}}\text{=}\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1+y}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{2xy=x-y}\]

Since, \[\text{x y}\Rightarrow \text{x-y 0}\].

But \[\text{2xy}\] is negative.

Therefore, \[\text{2xy }\ne \text{ x - y}\].

Hence, \[\text{x}\] being positive and \[\text{y}\] being negative is not possible. Similarly \[\text{x}\] being negative and \[\text{y}\] being positive can also be ruled out.

So, \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{y}\] have to be either positive or negative.

Assuming that both \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{y}\] are positive:

\[\text{f(x)=f(y)}\]

\[\Rightarrow \dfrac{\text{x}}{\text{1+x}}\text{=}\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1+y}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x+xy=y+xy}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x=y}\]

Assuming that both \[\text{x}\] and \[\text{y}\] are negative:

\[\text{f(x)=f(y)}\]

\[\Rightarrow \dfrac{\text{x}}{\text{1+x}}\text{=}\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1+y}}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x+xy=y+xy}\]

\[\Rightarrow \text{x=y}\]

Therefore, the function \[\text{f}\] is one – one.

For onto:

\[\text{y}\in \text{R}\] such that \[\text{-1 y 1}\].

If \[\text{y}\] is negative, then, there exists \[\text{x = }\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1+y}}\in \text{R}\] such that

\[\text{f}\left( \dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1+y}} \right)\text{=}\dfrac{\left( \dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1+y}} \right)}{\text{1+}\left| \dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1+y}} \right|}\]

\[\text{=}\dfrac{\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1+y}}}{\text{1+}\left( \dfrac{\text{-y}}{\text{1+y}} \right)}\]

\[\text{=}\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1+y-y}}\]

\[\text{=y}\]

If \[\text{y}\] is positive, then, there exists \[\text{x = }\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1-y}}\in \text{R}\] such that

\[\text{f}\left( \dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1-y}} \right)\text{=}\dfrac{\left( \dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1-y}} \right)}{\text{1+}\left| \dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1-y}} \right|}\]

\[\text{=}\dfrac{\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1-y}}}{\text{1+}\left( \dfrac{\text{-y}}{\text{1-y}} \right)}\]

\[\text{=}\dfrac{\text{y}}{\text{1-y+y}}\]

\[\text{=y}\]

Therefore, the function \[\text{f}\] is onto.

Hence the given function \[\text{f}\] is both one – one and onto.

2. Show that the function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] given by \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }{{\text{x}}^{\text{3}}}\] is injective.

Ans: The given function \[\text{f: R }\to \text{ R}\] is given as \[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = }{{\text{x}}^{\text{3}}}\].

For the function \[\text{f}\] to be one – one:

\[\text{f}\left( \text{x} \right)\text{ = f}\left( \text{y} \right)\] where \[\text{x, y}\in \text{R}\].

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{x}}^{\text{3}}}\text{=}{{\text{y}}^{\text{3}}}\] …… (1)

We need to show that \[\text{x=y}\].

Assuming that \[\text{x}\ne \text{y}\], then,

\[\Rightarrow {{\text{x}}^{\text{3}}}\ne {{\text{y}}^{\text{3}}}\]

Since this is a contradiction to (1), therefore, \[\text{x=y}\].

Hence, the function \[\text{f}\] is injective.

3. Given a non-empty set ${X}$, consider ${P}\left( {X} \right)$ which is the set of all subsets of ${X}$. Define the relation ${R}$ in ${P}\left( {X} \right)$ as follows:

For subsets ${A,B}$ in ${P}\left( {X} \right)$, ${ARB}$ if and only if ${A}\subset {B}$. Is ${R}$ an equivalence relation on ${P}\left( {X} \right)$? Justify you answer.

Ans: We know that every set is a subset of itself, ${ARA}$ for all ${A}\in {P}\left( {X} \right)$

Therefore ${R}$ is reflexive.

Let ${ARB}\Rightarrow {A}\subset {B}$.

This does not mean that ${B}\subset {A}$.

If ${A = }\left\{ {1, 2} \right\}$ and ${B = }\left\{ {1, 2, 3} \right\}$, then it cannot be implied that ${B}$ is related to ${A}$.

Therefore ${R}$ is not symmetric.

If ${ARB}$ and ${BRC}$ , then;

${A}\subset {B}$ and ${B}\subset {C}$

$\Rightarrow {A}\subset {C}$

$\Rightarrow {ARC}$

Therefore ${R}$ is transitive.

Hence, ${R}$ is not an equivalence relation as it is not symmetric.

4. Find the number of all onto functions from the set ${ }\!\!\{\!\!{ 1, 2, 3, }...{ , n }\!\!\}\!\!{ }$ to itself.

Ans: The total number of onto maps from ${ }\!\!\{\!\!{ 1, 2, 3, }...{ , n }\!\!\}\!\!{ }$ to itself will be same as the total number of permutations on ${n}$ symbols ${1, 2, 3, }...{ , n}$.

Since the total number of permutations on ${n}$ symbols ${1, 2, 3, }...{ , n}$ is ${n}$, thus total number of onto maps from ${ }\!\!\{\!\!{ 1, 2, 3, }...{ , n }\!\!\}\!\!{ }$ to itself are ${n}$.

5. Let ${{A=}\left\{ {-1, 0, 1, 2} \right\}{,B=}\left\{ {-4, -2, 0, 2} \right\}}$ and ${{f,g:A }\to { B}}$ be functions defined by ${{f}\left( {x} \right){=}{{{x}}^{{2}}}{-x,}\,{x}\in {A}}$ and ${{g}\left( {x} \right){=2}\left| {x-}\dfrac{{1}}{{2}} \right|{-1,x}\in {A}}$. Are ${{f}}$ and ${{g}}$ equal? Justify your answer. (Hint: One may note that two function ${{f:A }\to { B}}$ and ${{g:A }\to { B}}$ such that ${{f}\left( {a} \right){=g}\left( {a} \right)\forall {a}\in {A}}$, are called equal functions)

Ans: Let ${A=}\left\{ {-1, 0, 1, 2} \right\}{,B=}\left\{ {-4, -2, 0, 2} \right\}$ and ${f,g:A }\to { B}$ are defined by ${f}\left( {x} \right){=}{{{x}}^{{2}}}{-x,}\,{x}\in {A}$ and ${g}\left( {x} \right){=2}\left| {x-}\dfrac{{1}}{{2}} \right|{-1,x}\in {A}$.

${f}\left( {-1} \right){=}{{\left( {-1} \right)}^{{2}}}{-}\left( {-1} \right)$

${=1+1}$

${=2}$

And,

${g}\left( {-1} \right){=2}\left| \left( {-1} \right){-}\dfrac{{1}}{{2}} \right|{-1}$

${=2}\left( \dfrac{{3}}{{2}} \right){-1}$

${=3-1}$

${=2}$

$\Rightarrow {f}\left( {-1} \right){=g}\left( {-1} \right)$

${f}\left( {0} \right){=}{{\left( {0} \right)}^{{2}}}{-}\left( {0} \right)$

${=0}$

And,

${g}\left( {0} \right){=2}\left| \left( {0} \right){-}\dfrac{{1}}{{2}} \right|{-1}$

${=1-1}$

${=0}$

$\Rightarrow {f}\left( {0} \right){=g}\left( {0} \right)$

${f}\left( {1} \right){=}{{\left( {1} \right)}^{{2}}}{-}\left( {1} \right)$

${=1-1}$

${=0}$

And,

${g}\left( {1} \right){=2}\left| \left( {1} \right){-}\dfrac{{1}}{{2}} \right|{-1}$

${=2}\left( \dfrac{1}{{2}} \right){-1}$

${=1-1}$

${=0}$

$\Rightarrow {f}\left( {1} \right){=g}\left( {1} \right)$

${f}\left( {2} \right){=}{{\left( {2} \right)}^{{2}}}{-}\left( {2} \right)$

${=4-2}$

${=2}$

And,

${g}\left( {2} \right){=2}\left| \left( {2} \right){-}\dfrac{{1}}{{2}} \right|{-1}$

${=2}\left( \dfrac{{3}}{{2}} \right){-1}$

${=3-1}$

${=2}$

$\Rightarrow {f}\left( {2} \right){=g}\left( {2} \right)$

Therefore, ${f}\left( {a} \right){=g}\left( {a} \right)\forall {a}\in {A}$. Hence the functions ${f}$ and ${g}$ are equal.

6. Let \[\mathbf{\text{A=}\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3} \right\}}\] Then number of relations containing \[\mathbf{\left( \text{1, 2} \right)}\] and \[\mathbf{\left( \text{1, 3} \right)}\] which are reflexive and symmetric but not transitive is

\[\mathbf{\text{1}}\]

\[\mathbf{\text{2}}\]

\[\mathbf{\text{3}}\]

\[\mathbf{\text{4}}\]

Ans: We are given a set \[\text{A=}\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3} \right\}\].

Let us take the relation \[\text{R}\], containing \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\] and \[\left( \text{1, 3} \right)\], as \[\text{R=}\left\{ \left( \text{1, 1} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{1, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 1} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 1} \right) \right\}\].

As we can see that \[\left( \text{1, 1} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 3} \right)\in \text{R}\], therefore relation \[\text{R}\] is reflexive.

Since \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{1, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 1} \right)\in \text{R}\], the relation \[\text{R}\] is symmetric.

The relation Relation \[\text{R}\] is not transitive because \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\text{,}\,\left( \text{3, 1} \right)\in \text{R}\], but \[\left( \text{3, 2} \right)\notin \text{R}\].

The relation Relation \[\text{R}\] will become transitive on adding and two pairs \[\left( \text{3, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 3} \right)\].

Therefore the total number of desired relations is one.

The correct answer is option \[(A)\] \[\text{1}\].

7. Let \[\mathbf{\text{A=}\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3} \right\}}\] Then number of equivalence relations containing \[\mathbf{\left( \text{1, 2} \right)}\] is

\[\mathbf{\text{1}}\]

\[\mathbf{\text{2}}\]

\[\mathbf{\text{3}}\]

\[\mathbf{\text{4}}\]

Ans: We are given a set \[\text{A=}\left\{ \text{1, 2, 3} \right\}\].

Let us take the relation \[\text{R}\], containing \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\] as \[\text{R=}\left\{ \left( \text{1, 1} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{2, 1} \right) \right\}\].

Now the pairs left are \[\left( \text{2, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 2} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{1, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 1} \right)\]

In order to add one pair, say \[\left( \text{2, 3} \right)\], we must add \[\left( \text{3, 2} \right)\] for symmetry. And we are required to add \[\left( \text{1, 3} \right)\text{, }\left( \text{3, 1} \right)\] for transitivity.

So, only the equivalence relation (bigger than \[\text{R}\]) is the universal relation.

Therefore, the total number of equivalence relations containing \[\left( \text{1, 2} \right)\] are two.

Hence, the correct answer is (B) \[\text{2}\].

## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths – Free PDF Download

Students often feel troubled because they cannot find the appropriate solutions for NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 1 relations and functions. Here, the learners will find the proper solutions to the sums of relation and function class 12 chapter. These solutions can be downloaded for free from the official website of Vedantu, so it’s just a click away.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 Relations and Functions

### 1.1 Introduction

The NCERT Maths Class 12 Chapter 1 delves deep into the concepts of Relations and Functions. Students will have a recap of their learning from the previous class. The assessment will pave the way to a more in-depth understanding of the fundamental concepts of Chapter 1 Maths Class 12. A student will also learn the quantifiable relationship between two objects belonging to the sets. All the key points pertaining to relations and functions can be clearly understood with the given set of instructions. For a good understanding of the NCERT solutions for class 12 Maths Chapter 1, there is a need to revise the topics covered in the previous class.

Students will gain a refined understanding of the topics covered in Chapter 1 by studying the given activities. By going through the activities carefully, and by solving the sums of Chapter 1 they will be able to establish a clear idea of the properties of Relations and Functions. The level of difficulty will be propelled from an easier stage to a difficult one as one goes on solving the sums, one after the other. After gaining an overall idea of Chapter 1, it will be easier for students to answer every question with the utmost clarity.

### 1.2 Recall

In NCERT Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 Solutions, students will get to revise some topics from the previous class pertaining to Relations and Functions. A reiteration of these topics will help them to gain a deeper understanding of vertible and invertible functions. Comprehensive knowledge of real numbers and the usage of addition, multiplication, division, and subtraction will help them develop a better understanding of this chapter. Along with this, an insight into how the usage of relations accentuates the complimentary integer is also included in this chapter. Furthermore, it will pave the way for understanding the domain and the co-domain that adheres to the principles of functions.

### 1.3 Types of Functions

The above section explains the various types of Functions like identity function, constant function, polynomial function, rational function, modulus function, signum function, etc. This will help in understanding the relationship between the injective and the surjective function. One will also learn how the elements of three distinctly different numbers are in association with a host element. It furthermore provides a deeper sense of understanding about the finite as well as the infinite sets.

### 1.5 Binary Operations

You must be aware of the fundamental concepts of the BODMAS rule right from your junior school days. It will show how operational functions assist in inducing two numbers and therefore, their association as binary operations is used in the merging of two integers into one. You will be able to cover all of the aspects of the operations. You will also learn how a set of numbers will be eventually substituted by an arbitrary set of numbers which concerns the binary operation. Moreover, the formulation of the pair pertaining to the elements will help in developing a deeper sense of understanding of the concepts covered in this chapter.

## Overview of Deleted Syllabus for CBSE Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 Relations and Functions

Chapter | Dropped Topics |

Relations and Functions | 1.4 Composition of Functions and Invertible Function (up to ‘This leads to the following definition’) |

Page Number 13 - 14 | |

Page Number 15 Examples 24 and 25 | |

Page Number 16 - 25 | |

Page Number 26 Question 12 and 13 | |

Page Number 27 - 28 Examples 45 and 49 | |

Page 29 - 31 Question number 1 - 3, 6 - 7, 9, 11 - 14, 18 - 19 | |

Page Number 31 - 32 Summary points 11 - 13 and 15 - 19. |

## Class 12 Maths Chapter 2: Exercise Breakdown

Exercise | Number of Questions |

Exercise 1.1 Solutions | 16 Questions (14 Short Answers, 2 MCQ) |

Exercise 1.2 Solutions | 12 Questions (10 Short Answers, 2 MCQ) |

Miscellaneous Exercise Solutions | 19 Questions (7 Long answers, 9 Short Answer Type, 3 MCQs) |

## Conclusion

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 - Relations and Functions are crucial for building a strong foundation in mathematics. It's important to focus on understanding the concepts of relations and functions thoroughly. Pay attention to the types of relations and functions, their properties, and how they are represented graphically. Practice solving various types of problems to grasp the application of these concepts effectively. In the previous year's question paper, typically 4-5 questions were asked from this chapter. Additionally, mastering this chapter will lay a solid groundwork for more advanced mathematical topics in higher classes. So, devote ample time and effort to ensure a clear understanding of relations and functions.

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## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths | Chapter-wise List

Given below are the chapter-wise NCERT 12 Maths solutions PDF. Using these chapter-wise class 12th maths ncert solutions, you can get clear understanding of the concepts from all chapters.

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## Related Links for NCERT Class 12 Maths in Hindi

Explore these essential links for NCERT Class 12 Maths in Hindi, providing detailed solutions, explanations, and study resources to help students excel in their mathematics exams.

S.No. | Related NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths |

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## Important Related Links for NCERT Class 12 Maths

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## FAQs on NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 Relations And Functions

**1. Why is Vedantu’s NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 very reliable?**

Class 12 NCERT solutions Chapter 1 is of utmost importance to enhance your basic Maths knowledge, which will be immensely helpful in your future. You have to understand not just the basic concepts of this chapter but even the advanced portion to hold a grasp over this.

Vedantu’s Relation and Function solutions PDF (you can also refer to our live video courses) will strengthen your fundamentals of the chapter. It will also prepare you in such a way that even the advanced questions from this chapter will be easy for you to solve.

Vedantu’s Relations and Functions questions and answers PDF have both easy-to-understand solutions to let you understand the basics and also advanced solutions to erase any kind of doubts related to the chapter. In our NCERT Solutions PDF for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1, you will find answers for the basic problems like finding if the Relation is reflexive, symmetric or transitive. Intermediate problems etc.

**2. How many exercises are there in Class 12 Maths NCERT textbook Chapter 1?**

Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 contains four exercises in total and all of these exercises consist of various kinds of questions such as short answer type, multiple choice questions.

Exercise 1.1: 16 Questions (14 Short Answers, 2 MCQ)

Exercise 1.2: 12 Questions (10 Short Answers, 2 MCQ)

Miscellaneous Exercise: 13 Questions (12 Short Answers, 1 MCQ)

**3. Can you give a primary overview of the topics and sub-topics of the chapter?**

The main topics and sub-topics covered in this chapter are given below. There is also a Miscellaneous Q&A section at the end of Chapter 1.

1.1 - Introduction

1.2 - Types of Relations

1.3 - Types of Functions

1.4 - Binary Operations

**4. Why should I opt for NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1?**

There are various reasons behind why every Class 12 student should opt for the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 as the best study guide. A few are given in the following. Take a look:

All the answers to the questions asked in the textbook exercises are aimed at providing an effortless solution in solving the problems from Chapter 1 of Class 12 Maths named Relation and Function.

NCERT solutions for Class 12 Maths provide the list of all the important formulas under one roof.

NCERT Solutions are carefully created by some of the excellent subject matter experts from the relevant industry.

These solutions can be beneficial while studying for various competitive exams such as JEE Main, Olympiad etc. apart from the board exams.

These solutions help you to learn the question patterns, marks weightage etc.

5. What are the concepts explained in NCERT Solutions for chapter 1 of class 12 maths?

The first chapter of Class 12 Maths is “Relation and Functions,” and it gives an introduction to new concepts, as well as concepts learned previously that might be used in Class 12. It covers types of relations, types of functions, and binary operations. Each exercise in the Chapter has about 12 questions. It provides all the necessary formulas required to understand the concepts with sufficient examples.

6. What is Relation, according to Chapter 1 of Class 12 Maths?

Relation is the concept that describes the relationship between two sets of quantities with each other. The relations can be described as empty or universal. These concepts along with examples explaining them step-by-step can be found in the NCERT Solutions for Chapter 1 of Class 12 Maths. All the exercises are also solved for the reference of students and extra questions for practice are provided as well.

7. How many chapters are present in Class 12 Maths, including Chapter 1?

The NCERT Maths textbook for Class 12 Maths has a total of 12 chapters including Chapter 1. All these chapters are covered in the NCERT Solutions PDF provided by Vedantu. The solutions book explains all the chapters with enough examples that help students understand the concepts better. Each exercise is solved with step-by-step answers for the students to follow. Extra questions based on previous years' papers and patterns are also provided for practice. These solutions are prepared by subject matter experts and are based on the latest exam guidelines. So these solutions are 100% reliable.

8. Where can I download the NCERT Solutions for Chapter 1 of Class 12 Maths?

The NCERT Solutions for Chapter 1 of Class 12 Maths is available for download free of cost on the Vedantu website and the Vedantu app. The NCERT Solutions PDF is written keeping in mind the easy learning of students and how each student has a different caliber. All the concepts and examples are explained in an easy language for the students to understand. It helps you familiarise with the kind of questions to expect in the exam. The questions and solutions are formulated by professionals.

9. How can I prepare Chapter 1 of Class 12 Maths for the board exam?

Board exams are very important in determining a student’s future and Chapter 1 of Class 12 Maths is important. Chapter 1 is important not only for the board but also for various competitive exams, including JEE. The students should practice all the questions and examples from the NCERT textbook thoroughly. The students can refer to the solutions PDF for extra questions and explanations. Students should also practice sample papers and papers from previous years for the students to know the kind of questions to expect in the exam and be well-versed with it.

10. What concepts are covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1?

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Relations and Functions cover the following concepts: types of relations, types of functions, function composition, invertible functions, and binary operations. A team of highly experienced faculty members solves the exercise-related concerns. The primary goal of providing solutions is to help students perform well on Class 12 Maths board exams.

11. What are the main points of relation and function?

Relation: A collection of ordered pairs that describes a connection between elements in two sets. Think of it as a mapping, but an element in the first set can have multiple corresponding elements in the second set.

Function: A special type of relation where each element in the first set (called the domain) has exactly one corresponding element in the second set (called the codomain, often denoted as the range when the function uses all elements in the codomain). It's like a stricter mapping where there are no ambiguities in outputs for a given input.

12. Is every function a relation True or false?

Every function is inherently a relation because it fulfills the basic definition of a relation: a collection of ordered pairs. However, not all relations are functions because they might violate the "one input, one output" rule.

13. Who is the father of relation and function?

Mathematics is a vast field built upon the contributions of many mathematicians throughout history. These concepts have evolved over time, with important figures like Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Leonhard Euler making significant contributions.

14. How to identify if a relation is a function?

Here are some ways to identify if a relation is a function:

Arrow Test: Draw arrows between elements in the first set and their corresponding elements in the second set. If any element in the first set has multiple outgoing arrows, the relation is not a function.

Vertical Line Test (for functions graphed on a coordinate plane): If a vertical line intersects the graph of the relation in more than one point, it's not a function.

**15. Is a function never a relation?**

Every function is inherently a relation. It satisfies the definition of a relation (ordered pairs) and adds the extra constraint of one input, one output.

16. What are the similarities between relation and function?

Both relations and functions describe connections between elements in sets using ordered pairs. They can be represented in various ways, including tables, arrow diagrams, and graphs.