Deforestation is a removal or clearing of trees and forest which is converted into use for human, like for agricultural use, making houses, for commercial purpose and other development. About 31% of earth’s land surface is covered by forest, just over 4 billion hectares area and about 71.22 million hectares area of India’s total land is covered by forest. Deforestation is more extreme in the tropical and subtropical forests. These areas are converted into economical uses. The total area of tropical rain forest on Earth is about 16 million square kilometres but because of deforestation, only 6.2 square kilometres are left. According to the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020, the global rate of net forest loss in 2010-2020 was 7 million hectares per year.
The primary reason for deforestation is agricultural. According to FAQ, agriculture leads to around 80% of deforest. For the survival of the livelihood, the farmer cut trees of the forest and use that land for the purpose of cultivation. Due to the increasing population, the demand of food product is also increasing, because of this large amount of land is needed for the cultivation of crops hence farmers are bounded to cut down the forest to grow crops on that land.
Apart from this, the demand for paper, match-sticks, furniture, etc. are also increasing. Therefore the wood-based industries needs a substantial amount of wood supply to make this product. Paper plays an important role in everyone life. The paper is thrown away every year like to make accounts for approximately 640 million trees. That’s why it is said that we always have to recycle paper. Wood is used as fuel, many people cut trees and burn them for the purpose to make food. Wood is also used as coal. In every house, there is a wooden door, window and many more things. These things create a very large demand for wood which results in the cause of deforestation.
Further, to gain access to these places, the construction of roads is undertaken. Trees are again cut to build roads. The expansion of cities is also responsible for the cutting of trees, this expansion of cities is directly responsible for the growing population, people of these places need houses, roads and other facilities so that they cut trees for their livelihood.
Many industries in petrochemicals release their waste into rivers, which result in soil erosion and make it unfit to grow plants and trees on these places. The oil and coal mining requires a large amount of forest land. The waste that comes out from mining pollutes the environment and affects other species.
Another reason is forest fire. Thousands of trees every year lost by a forest fire. The reason for forest fire is the hot temperature of that place and milder winter. On many places, the fire is caused because of human’s irresponsibilities. Fires, either caused by human or by nature, results in a massive amount of loss of forest covers.
We all know that the population of the world is increasing rapidly, which is also a reason behind deforestation. People cut down trees and on that place they make houses.
Forest are the lungs of our planet. Trees take carbon dioxide and release oxygen which is responsible for our living. Trees also provide shed to soil because of which soil remain moist. Trees also release water vapours, that’s why climate remains humid but due to the process of deforestation the climate becomes drier and hotter which make ecology difficult that leads to climate change. Also, this factor is mainly responsible for the forest fire.
Animal and plants which form flora and fauna across the world have to suffer due to the deforestation. Various animal species are lost, they loos their habitat and forced to move to a new location. It is very difficult for them to adopt new habitats. The cutting of trees is responsible for soil erosion. The fertile soil is held in place by intricate root structures of many layers of trees. Without trees, erosion often occurs and sweeps the land into nearby rivers. With the cutting of trees the soil is directly exposed to the sun which dries them dry. Deforestation is mainly responsible for floods, loss of biodiversity, food ecosystem, wildlife extinction and habitat loss.
Question 1:- How Deforestation is Responsible for Land Degradation?
Answer:-Trees provide shed to soil because of which soil remain humid. Also, the fertile soil is held in place by intricate root structures of many layers of trees. When the trees are cut down then the soil becomes loose and also there is no shed for soil which results in soil erosion. So, we concluded that trees prevent soil erosion and thus land degradation.
Question 2:- What are the Causes of Deforestation?
Answer:- There are several reasons for deforestation like agriculture, logging, cattle ranching, for making furniture from wood, constriction of roads and forest fire.
Question 3:- Where is the Largest Rainforest Located in the World?
Answer:- The largest rainforest is the Amazon Basin in South America.