Environment is the surrounding of an organism. This environment in which an organism lives is made up of various components like air, water, land, etc. These components are found in fixed proportions to create a harmonious balance in the environment for the organism to live in. Any kind of undesirable and wanted change in the proportions of these components can be termed as pollution. This issue is increasing with every passing year. It is an issue that troubles economically, physically and socially. The environmental problem that is worsening with each day needs to be addressed so that its harmful effects on humans as well as the planet can be redressed.
With the rise of the industries and the migration of people from villages to cities in search of employment, there has been a regular increase in the problem of proper housing and unhygienic conditions of living. These reasons have given rise in factors for pollution.
Environmental pollution is of five basic types namely; Air, Water, Soil and Noise pollution.
Air Pollution: Air pollution is a major issue in today’s world. The smoke pouring out of factory chimneys and automobiles pollute the air that we breathe in. Gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide are emitted which mix with air and cause great harm to the human body, flora and fauna. The dry farm waste, dry grass, leaves and coal used as domestic fuels in our villages also produce harmful gases. Acid rain occurs due to excess of sulphur dioxide in the air.
Water Pollution: Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues. The waste products from the growing industries and sewage water are not treated properly before disposing into rivers and other water bodies, thus creating pollution. Agricultural processes with excess fertilizers and pesticides also pollute the water bodies.
Soil or Land Pollution: The next source of environmental pollution is soil. Waste materials such as plastics, polythene, bottles, etc. cause land pollution and render soil infertile. Moreover, dumping of dead bodies of men and animals, washing of clothes and utensils add to this issue. It is a very dangerous aspect of environment since it affects the fertility and food production of the area and the country.
Noise Pollution: This issue is a very subtle form of pollution. All human activities contribute to noise pollution to a large extent. Horns of the vehicles, loud speakers, music system, industrial activities contribute towards this issue.
Problems like ozone depletion, global warming, greenhouse effect, change in climatic and weather conditions, melting of glaciers etc. are some more issues in the environment.
To minimize this issue, the preventive measures need to be taken.
Principle of 3R’s: To save the environment, use the principle of 3 R’s; Reuse, Reduce and Recycle.
Reuse products again and again. Instead of throwing away things after one use, find a way to use them again. Reduce the amount of waste products generated.
Recycle: Paper, plastics, glass and electronic items can be processed into new products while using fewer natural resources and lesser energy.
To prevent and control measures of air pollution including better-designed equipment and smokeless fuels should be used in homes and industries.
More and more trees should be planted to balance the ecosystem and control greenhouse effects.
Noise pollution can be minimized by better designing and proper maintenance of vehicles. Industrial noise can be reduced by sound proofing equipment like generators, etc.
To control soil pollution, usage of plastic bags must be stopped. Sewage should be treated properly before using as fertilizers and as landfills.
Several measures can be adopted to control water pollution. Some of them are the water requirement can be minimized by altering the techniques involved. Water should be reused with treatment. The quantity of water waste discharged should be reduced.
Saving our planet from these environmental issues is the responsibility of every individual. If preventive measures are not taken then our future generation will have to face major repercussions. Government is also taking steps to create public awareness. Every individual should be involved in helping to reduce and control pollution.
Q1. What are the Major Environmental Issues?
Ans. The major environmental issues are environmental degradation, climate change, global warming, and greenhouse effects.
Q2. What is the Best Way to Control Greenhouse Effect?
Ans. Afforestation is the best way to control greenhouse effect.
Q3. What is the Principle of 3Rs?
Ans. The principle of 3Rs is Reuse, Reduce and Recycle.
Q4. How do you Minimize Soil Pollution?
Ans. Stopping the use of plastics can minimize soil pollution.