The environment is the surrounding of an organism. The environment in which an organism lives is made up of various components like air, water, land, etc. These components are found in fixed proportions to create a harmonious balance in the environment for the organism to live in. Any kind of undesirable and unwanted change in the proportions of these components can be termed as pollution. This issue is increasing with every passing year. It is an issue that creates economic, physical, and social troubles. The environmental problem that is worsening with each day needs to be addressed so that its harmful effects on humans as well as the planet can be discarded.
Causes of Environmental Pollution
With the rise of the industries and the migration of people from villages to cities in search of employment, there has been a regular increase in the problem of proper housing and unhygienic living conditions. These reasons have given rise to factors that cause pollution.
Environmental pollution is of five basic types namely, Air, Water, Soil, and Noise pollution.
Air Pollution: Air pollution is a major issue in today’s world. The smoke pouring out of factory chimneys and automobiles pollute the air that we breathe in. Gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulphur dioxide are emitted with this smoke which mixes with air and causes great harm to the human body, flora, and fauna. The dry-farm waste, dry grass, leaves, and coal used as domestic fuels in our villages also produce harmful gases. Acid rain occurs due to excess of sulphur dioxide in the air.
The Main Sources of Air Pollution are as Follows:
Industrial air pollution
Indoor air pollution
Decomposed animals and plants
Water Pollution: Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues. The waste products from the growing industries and sewage water are not treated properly before disposing of the wastewater into the rivers and other water bodies, thus leading to water pollution. Agricultural processes with excess fertilizers and pesticides also pollute the water bodies.
The Main Sources of Water Pollution as Follows:
Industrial effluents joining seas and oceans.
Dumping of radioactive substances into seawater.
Sewage disposed of into the sea by rivers.
Offshore oil rigs.
Agricultural pollutants disposed of into the water bodies.
Soil or Land Pollution: Soil pollution or land pollution results from the deposition of solid waste, accumulation of biodegradable material, deposition of chemicals with poisonous chemical compositions, etc on the open land. Waste materials such as plastics, polythene, and bottles, cause land pollution and render the soil infertile. Moreover, the dumping of dead bodies of animals adds to this issue. Soil pollution causes several diseases in man and animals like Cholera, Dysentery, Typhoid, etc.
The Main Causes of Soil Pollution are as Follows:
Urban commercial and domestic waste
Noise Pollution: With an increasing population, urbanization, and industrialization, noise pollution is becoming a serious form of pollution affecting human life, health, and comfort in daily life. Horns of the vehicles, loudspeakers, music systems, industrial activities contribute to noise pollution.
The Main Sources of Noise Pollution as Follows:
The machines in the factories and industries produce whistling sounds, crushing noise, and thundering sounds.
Loudspeakers, horns of vehicles.
Blasting of rocks and earth, drilling tube wells, ventilation fans, and heavy earth-moving machinery at construction sites.
How to Minimize Environmental Pollution?
To minimize this issue, some preventive measures need to be taken.
Principle of 3R’s: To save the environment, use the principle of 3 R’s; Reuse, Reduce and Recycle.
Reuse products again and again. Instead of throwing away things after one use, find a way to use them again. Reduce the generation of waste products.
Recycle: Paper, plastics, glass, and electronic items can be processed into new products while using fewer natural resources and lesser energy.
To prevent and control air pollution, better-designed equipment, and smokeless fuels should be used in homes and industries. More and more trees should be planted to balance the ecosystem and control greenhouse effects.
Noise pollution can be minimized by better designing and proper maintenance of vehicles. Industrial noise can be reduced by soundproofing equipment like generators, etc.
To control soil pollution, we must stop the usage of plastic. Sewage should be treated properly before using it as fertilizers and as landfills. Encourage organic farming as this process involves the use of biological materials and avoid synthetic substances to maintain soil fertility and ecological balance.
Several measures can be adopted to control water pollution. Some of them are water consumption and usage that can be minimized by altering the techniques involved. Water should be reused with treatment.
It is the responsibility of every individual to save our planet from these environmental contamination agents. If preventive measures are not taken then our future generation will have to face major repercussions. The government is also taking steps to create public awareness. Every individual should be involved in helping to reduce and control pollution.
Q1. What do you Understand by ‘Environmental Pollution’?
Ans. Environmental pollution is the contamination of the environment and surroundings like air, water, soil by the discharge of harmful substances.
Q2. What Preventive Measures should be Taken to Save Our Environment?
Ans. Some of the preventive measures that should be taken to save our environment are discussed below.
We can save our environment by adopting the concept of carpool and promote public transport to save fuel. Smoking bars are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations that prohibit tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public places.
The use of Fossil fuels should be restricted because it causes major environmental issues like global warming.
Encourage organic farming to maintain the fertility of the soil.
Q3. What are the Main Sources of Soil Pollution?
Ans. The main sources of soil pollution as follows:
Urban commercial and domestic waste
Q4. What is Organic Farming?
Ans. It is a farming method that involves growing and nurturing crops without the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.