Meristematic Tissue

Meristematic Tissue Definition

A plant tissue that has the power to divide itself actively throughout its life is called a Meristematic Tissue. 

What is Meristematic Tissue?

The term meristem was coined by Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli. Meristematic tissues have undifferentiated cells which form the building blocks of the specialized plant structures. Meristematic tissues have living cells with varied shapes. They possess a large nucleus devoid of the vacuole. The cells have no intercellular space. The place where these cells exist is called Meristem. The cells of the meristematic tissue have the capability to divide itself actively to make specialized structures like buds of leaves and flowers, tips of roots and shoots, etc. These cells help to increase the length and bulkiness of the plant.

Characteristics of Meristematic Tissue

The characteristics of meristematic tissue are the following - 

  • The cells of these tissues are known as Meristems 

  • It has the quality of self-renewal as every time the cell divides, one cell remains just like the parent cell and the others form specialized structures.

  • They have very small and few vacuoles.

  • The meristematic tissues are living and thin-walled.

  • The protoplasm of the cells is very dense.

  • The meristematic tissues heal the injuries of an injured plant.

  • These cells do not store food.

  • They exhibit a very high metabolic activity.

  • They possess a single, large and prominent nucleus.

Types of Meristematic Tissue

The meristematic tissue is of the following types:

Meristematic Tissue On the basis of Origin

Promeristem

  • The earliest and youngest meristematic tissue.

  • It originates from the embryo.

  • The primary meristem arises from the promeristem.

  • It is found in the root and the shoot tips.

Primary Meristem

  • It arises from the promeristem.

  • Cells divide actively.

  • It is present a little below the promeristem and forms the permanent tissue.

Secondary Meristem

  • It originates from the primary meristem.

  • The permanent tissue forms from the secondary meristem.

Meristematic Tissue On the Basis of Position

Apical Meristem

  • These are present at the tips of the roots and shoots and help in the increase in height of the plants.

  • Various cell divisions facilitate the growth of the cells in the roots and shoots. and help in cellular enlargement.

  • Apical meristem has two parts into-promeristem zone which contains actively dividing cells, and therefore the meristematic zone which contains protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem. 

Intercalary Meristem

  • It is located within the leaves and internodes at the intercalary position.

  • These help to increase the length of the internode.

  • It is in a neighbourhood with the grass, monocots, and pines.

  • It is a part of apical meristem and adds to the peak of the plant.

Lateral Meristem

  • It is located in the stems and roots on the lateral side.

  • It increases the thickness of the plant.

  • Vascular cambium and cork cambium are the 2 lateral meristems.

  • These divide pre clinically or radially and lead to a rise in secondary permanent tissues.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Define Meristematic Tissue?

A plant tissue that has the power to divide itself actively throughout its life is called a Meristematic Tissue.

2. Who discovered Meristematic Tissue?

The term meristem was coined by Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli.

3. What are the characteristics of Meristematic Tissue?

The characteristics of meristematic tissue are the following - 

  • The cells of these tissues are known as Meristems 

  • It has the quality of self-renewal as every time the cell divides, one cell remains just like the parent cell and the others form specialized structures.

  • They have very small and few vacuoles.

  • The meristematic tissues are living and thin-walled.

  • The protoplasm of the cells is very dense.

  • The meristematic tissues heal the injuries of an injured plant.

  • These cells do not store food.

  • They exhibit a very high metabolic activity.

  • They possess a single, large and prominent nucleus.

4. What are the two types of Meristematic Tissue?

The meristematic tissue is of two types - 

  1. On the basis of their position 

  2. On the basis of their function

5. What is an Intercalary Meristem?

An intercalary meristem is located within the leaves and internodes at the intercalary position. These help to increase the length of the internode. It is in a neighbourhood with the grass, monocots and pines. It is a part of apical meristem and adds to the peak of the plant.