Ptyalin is a starch hydrolyzing enzyme produced by human salivary glands. It is a form of salivary amylase. Ptyalin, which is secreted in the mouth, aids in the digestion of starch in the mouth. It hydrolyzes starch into maltose and isomaltose, as well as other small dextrins known as the limit dextrins. Ptyalin hydrolysis at a rate of about 30% of the starch in the mouth.
Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (splitting of a compound by adding a water molecule) of starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules like maltose (a molecule composed of two glucose molecules). Amylases are classified into three groups, alpha, beta, and gamma, based on how they attack the starch molecules' bonds.
Ptyalin enzyme is present in the mouth and gets mixed with food to act on starches. Although the food is only in the mouth for a short period of time, ptyalin's action in the stomach can last for several hours—until the food is mixed with stomach secretions, the high acidity of which inactivates ptyalin. The digestive action of ptyalin is determined by the amount of acid in the stomach, how quickly the stomach contents empty, and how well the food has mixed with the acid. During digestion in the stomach, ptyalin can break down as much as 30 to 40% of ingested starches to maltose under ideal conditions.
When food reaches the small intestine, pancreatic amylase catalyzes the conversion of the remaining starch molecules to maltose. This step in starch digestion takes place in the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine into which the pancreatic juices empty. Other enzymes break down the by-products of amylase hydrolysis into glucose molecules, which are quickly absorbed through the intestinal wall.
The enzyme amylase, a type of which is ptyalin, is found in saliva and is capable of breaking down starch into simpler sugars like maltose and dextrin, which can then be broken down further in the small intestine. In the mouth cavity, only about 30% of starch digestion takes place.
Our mouth secretes saliva that contains a lot of enzymes one such enzyme is Ptylin. Ptyalin enzymes are sometimes also called alpha-amylase enzymes. Ptylin functions as a catalyst or a product that can accelerate the process of hydrolyzing carbohydrates into simple sugars in the digestive system of food.
Ptyalin enzymes are responsible for remodelling or degrading starch (starch) into simpler carbohydrate structures such as maltose. The carbohydrate can be absorbed by the body and flowed across the body by the blood into energy that can be used to perform everyday tasks after the starch is reshuffled by the ptyalin enzyme.
Unlike other amylase enzymes, the ability of ptyalin enzymes to reshape polysaccharides into maltose with shorter bonds is their only function. The disaccharide structure cannot be hydrolyzed by the ptyalin enzyme into simple sugars. Other digestive enzymes are capable of hydrolysis and decomposition of short-chain carbohydrate structures. As a result, at the disaccharide level, ptyalin enzymes can only transform carbs into simple sugars.
Function of Ptyalin Enzymes in Carbohydrate Digestion
Digestive organs secrete different kinds of enzymes to help speed up the process of food absorption while digesting carbs. Carbohydrate enzymes are enzymes that play a role in the process of digesting carbohydrates. Ptyalin enzyme and amylase enzyme are the two carbohydrate enzymes that have the greatest effect. The ptyalin enzyme is similar to the amylase enzyme in that it works in the oral cavity first, while the amylase enzyme is produced exclusively by the pancreas.
Production of Ptyalin Enzyme and Its Work Mechanism
The chamber is located in the oral cavity, as previously stated since the ptyalin enzyme is only produced by salivary glands. When food enters the mouth, the salivary glands are automatically stimulated to produce saliva. Saliva contains a high concentration of ptyalin enzymes.
The ptyalin enzyme in saliva breaks down the carbohydrate arrangement into glucose just as the food starts to chew (short-chain). The reshuffle process takes so long that the meal gets swallowed before the ptyalin enzyme could finish its work. On the other hand, the ptyalin enzyme in the throat will keep working until the food reaches the stomach.
The ptyalin enzyme, which can work in a room with a high pH, will stop working when it enters the stomach, which has a high acidity level. However, when still in the throat, the ptyalin enzyme's results and actions can only reach a small percentage of the starch present in the diet. The amylase enzyme will hydrolyze the majority of the remaining starch.
By chewing your food longer and allowing ptyalin to do its job, we can increase the performance of ptyalin enzymes. The emergence of the sweetness of the rice we chew for a long time is the true evidence that ptyalin works. We have made it easier for the digestive organs to work in the next part of digestion by chewing food slowly and softly, in addition to optimizing the mechanical process of digestion.