Neurology Definition

Neurology is a field of medicine that deals with nervous system disorders. All disorders and diseases affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems (and their subdivisions, the somatic and autonomic nervous systems), as well as their coverings, blood vessels, as well as all effector tissue, including muscle, are treated in neurology. The field of neuroscience, or the clinical study of the nervous system, is heavily used in neurological practise. The field of neuroscience, or the clinical study of the nervous system, is heavily used in neurological practise.

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Neurologist Definition

About Neurologist: A neurologist is a neurology specialist who has been qualified to study, diagnose, and cure neurological disorders. Clinical research, clinical trials, and fundamental or translational research are all possibilities for neurologists. Although neurology is a nonsurgical discipline, neurosurgery is its surgical counterpart. Neurologists provide neurology medicine(neuro medicine) which is taken in order to cure neuro-related problems. Neurologists are doctors who specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders. Symptoms that necessitate a visit to a neurologist include:

  • coordination problems

  • muscle weakness

  • a change in sensation

  • confusion

  • dizziness

Neurologist Subspecialties

A neurologist may specialise in a particular field due to the complexity of the nervous system. After residency, they'll pursue a fellowship in that area. Subspecialties have developed to concentrate a doctor's attention.

There are Numerous Subspecialties in This Field. Here are a Few Examples:

  • neuromuscular medicine

  • headache medicine

  • geriatric neurology

  • neurocritical care

  • autonomic disorders

  • Neuro-oncology

The fields of neurology and psychiatry have a lot of overlap, and the distinction between the two sciences and the disorders they handle is a little blurry.

Training

Many neurologists specialise in one or more areas of neurology, including stroke, neuromuscular disorders, epilepsy, pain control, sleep medicine, or movement disorders.

Neurologists are doctors who have completed postgraduate training in neurology since graduating from medical school in the United States and Canada.


On average, neurologists undertake about 8 years of medical college education and clinical training, which requires a four-year undergraduate degree, a medical degree (DO or MD) that takes another four years of study, one year of basic clinical training, as well as four years of residency. A one-year internship in internal medicine is followed further by three years of neurology study in a four-year residency.


Few neurologists undergo additional subspecialty training in a specific field of study. These training programmes are known as fellowships, and they last one to two years.

Neurodevelopmental disorders, vascular neurology (stroke), pain medicine, neuromuscular medicine, neurocritical treatment, sleep medicine, behavioural neurology, headache, child neurology, neuroimaging, multiple sclerosis, and neurorehabilitation are several of the subspecialties.

Clinical Tasks

In both inpatient and outpatient settings, neurologists treat patients that have been referred to them by other doctors. Neurologists begin their experiences with patients by having a thorough medical history and then conducting a physical examination that focuses on the nervous system. The patient's cognitive control, cranial nerves, motor power, feeling, reflexes, balance, and gait are all assessed as part of the neurological test.


Neurologists can request additional diagnostic tests as part of the evaluation in some cases. Imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed axial tomography (CAT) scans, and ultrasound of large blood vessels of the head and neck are commonly used measures in neurology. Electroencephalography (EEG), nerve conduction studies (NCSs), needle electromyography (EMG), and evoked potentials are all typical neurophysiologic tests. Lumbar punctures are often used by neurologists to evaluate the properties of a patient's cerebrospinal fluid.


Genetic testing has been a significant tool in the classification of hereditary neuromuscular disease as well as the treatment of several other neurogenetic disorders thanks to advancements in genetic testing. The effect of genetic factors on the development of acquired neurologic diseases is a hot topic in the scientific community.


Headaches, neuropathy, seizures radiculopathy, dementia, stroke, and epilepsy, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, head trauma, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Tourette's syndrome, sleep disturbances, neuromuscular diseases, and numerous infections and tumours of the nervous system are only a few of the conditions handled by neurologists. Neurologists are now being asked to assess unresponsive patients on life support to determine whether they have died of brain death.


Treatment options differ based on the nature of the neurological issue. Making reference to the patient to a physiotherapist, administering medicines, or requesting a surgical procedure are several of the options.

General Caseload

Neurologists are in charge of diagnosing, treating, and managing all of the disorders listed above. The neurologist may refer the client to a neurosurgeon or an interventional neuroradiologist if surgical or endovascular intervention is needed. In certain nations, a neurologist's additional legal duties may include diagnosing brain death when a patient is suspected of having died. When the primary symptoms of inherited (genetic) disorders are neurological, as is often the case, neurologists are frequently consulted.


Neurologists conduct lumbar punctures on a regular basis. Stroke, dementia, neurointensive care, multiple sclerosis, movement disorders, epilepsy, headaches, chronic pain management, sleep disorders, or neuromuscular diseases are among some of the subfields in which neurologists - gain an interest.

Overlapping Areas

Some specialities have some overlap, which varies from country to country and also within a particular geographic region. Acute head trauma is usually handled by neurosurgeons, while head trauma sequelae can be handled by neurologists or rehabilitation medicine specialists.


Traditionally, stroke cases were handled by internal medicine or hospitalists, but the rise of vascular neurology and interventional neuroradiology has generated a market for stroke specialists. In several primary and tertiary hospitals, the establishment of Joint Commission-certified stroke centres has expanded the role of neurologists in stroke care.

Infectious disease experts treat certain forms of nervous system infectious diseases. The majority of headache cases, at least the less serious ones, are diagnosed and cured by general practitioners.

Overlap With Psychiatry

Despite the fact that many people assume psychiatric diseases are neurological conditions affecting the central nervous system, psychiatrists have historically categorised and treated them separately. Professor Joseph B. Martin, Dean of Harvard Medical School and a trained neurologist, wrote in a review article published in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 2002, "The distinction between the two groups is subjective, and it is often informed by prejudices rather than empirical evidence. The fact that the brain and mind are ones makes the distinction artificial in the first place ".

Neurological Enhancement

The growing area of neurological enhancement emphasises the potential for therapies to increase things like job effectiveness, school focus, and overall satisfaction. However, since various types of drugs can rely on people and their lives, concerns about neuroethics and the psychopharmacology of lifestyle drugs might possess a negative and positive impact on neurology have arisen in this area.

Conclusion

Neurology is a branch of medicine that focuses on diseases of the nervous system. Neurology deals with all conditions and diseases that affect the central and peripheral nervous systems (and their subdivisions, the somatic and autonomic nervous systems), as well as their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, including muscle. Because of the nervous system's complexity, a neurologist may specialise in one area. They intend to seek a fellowship in that field after completing their residency. Subspecialties have arisen in order to focus a doctor's attention. Diseases, illnesses, and problems involving the brain and nervous system are treated with neuro medicines. The brain or the body processes it regulates may be affected by the symptoms of these diseases.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What are the Five Most Common Neurological Conditions?

Ans. The five most common neurological conditions are:-

  • Headache

  • Stroke

  • Seizures

  • Parkinson's Disease

  • Dementia

Q2. How Does a Neurologist Determine Whether or Not There is Nerve Damage?

Ans. Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic test used to investigate nerve and muscle activity. It's usually done by a physiatrist or neurologist who has received special training in this region.