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Necrosis

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Necrosis is a cell tissue that is generated during the injury. It is a death tissue formed and has no reverse action. With the impact of injury to the skin or bone, the amount of blood supply will reduce gradually. Due to the lack of blood supply, necrosis tissues were formed. The death of cells caused by noxious stimuli. 

Let's get more ideas on necrotic tissue along with noxious stimuli.

The agents of noxious stimuli are - 

  • bacteria

  • parasites

  • viruses

  • fungi

The formation of necrosis is due to various reasons. The major reasons are - 

oxygen deprivation or hypoxia, and extreme environmental conditions such as heat, radiation, or exposure to ultraviolet irradiation, etc 


Types of Necrosis

By observing the necrosis meaning, it is clear that the necrosis forms due to a single reason. But, the variation in types of necrosis can be found when the cells die due to necrosis. Those types classified by appearance are - 

  • Liquefactive necrosis

  • Coagulative necrosis

Liquefactive Necrosis:- 

Is also known as colliquative necrosis. It has a microscopic appearance. Here the dead tissue is dissolved or transformed into a liquid or viscous fluid either partially or completely. All the transformation can be done within the hours.


Coagulative Necrosis:- 

It is completely different from the about type. It is a macroscopic appearance, and the result can be observed after several days of cell death. It has a default pattern connected to all parts of the body using ischemia or hypoxia except the brain.

Besides these two types, there is another classification based on morphological patterns. They are - 

  • caseous necrosis

  • fibrinoid necrosis

  • fat necrosis

  • Gangrenous necrosis

Caseous Necrosis:- 

This is a unique type of necrosis. It is found only in tuberculosis patients. 


Fibrinoid Necrosis:- 

It has a damaged vascular pattern. It can be observed due to deficiency of immune, rickettsia, autoimmunity, immune complex infections, etc. It is also known as avascular necrosis


Fat Necrosis:- 

The other name is acute tubular necrosis. Because it is caused due to acute inflammation of tissues. They affect several adipocytes and damage the enzymes required for digestion and usually observed in the breast and pancreas.


Gangrenous Necrosis:- 

This type of necrosis is usually observed in the lower and upper parts of limbs. The affected area of skin turns into black color. The symptoms of both liquefactive necrosis and

coagulative necrosis was found.

The observations of various types of necrosis are tabulated as follows- 


Type

Gross Appearance

Microscopic Appearance

Liquefactive necrosis

the tissue will be released or transformed into a liquid form which is a creamy structure in alloys color. Usually, it is known as pus or viscous fluid.

Inflammatory cells are observed with several neutrophils.

coagulative necrosis

The general architecture is maintained and fisheries also form for several days after the death of a cell

The outlines of a cell are preserved for a long run without nuclei.

Caseous necrosis

a soft cheesy looking material can be observed in white color.

The eosinophilic Center is surrounded by the collar of lymphocytes. Macrophages work gets activated uniformly. The entire structure caused because of tuberculosis is known as a granuloma.

Fibrinoid necrosis

Not considerable observation. Grossly discernible.

in blood vessels, small quantities of fibrin get deposited.

Fat necrosis

Calcium soaps were formed in whitish color.

The deposits of calcium soaps have blue stains on them. These times are known as anucleated adipocytes.

Gangrenous necrosis

The formation of black skin can be seen based on the level of putrefaction.

It is a combination of both Liquefactive necrosis and coagulative necrosis. It is a case of superimposing bacterial infection.


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Risk Factors and Causes of Necrosis

The major cause of necrosis is a decrease in blood supply to the tissue. If the blood supply completely stops, the cell tissue will die and results in necrosis. It has several risk factors. Every Factor that leads to necrosis is nothing but the risk factor. It includes - infections, injuries, sudden attacks, usage of steroids and bisphosphonates, accidents by vehicles, etc. will be considered as risk factors. Also, the necrosis can be attacked at various parts of the internal and external organs like skin tissues may damage, bones, muscles may get damaged. based on the type and severity of the damage, necrosis can be observed in various forms and colors. All these were discussed above. 


Conclusion 

Hence one can get a clear thought of necrosis's meaning. It is caused by death cells due to various factors like accidents, deficiency, infections, etc. by examining properly and understanding the type of necrosis, It can be treated appropriately. So following the doctor is always better than unknown assumptions. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the Preventive Steps Needed to be Taken for Avascular Necrosis?

Ans. It is clear that prevention is better than cure. Instead of suffering pain and facing medical issues, one should be attentive and follow the preventive steps to avoid avascular necrosis. They are - 

  • Smoking and drinking alcohol should be under the limit. One should not get addicted, which leads to complicated situations.

  • Should monitor the cholesterol level frequently and always try to maintain less cholesterol in the body.

  • Should take the guidance of a family doctor who knows about the past and present tense of your health while using steroids. According to the prescription, only one should need to use steroids. The over usage of steroids causes avascular necrosis.

  • A regular minimum physical activity is always to keep the body fit and healthy.

2. Explain the Causes of Necrosis in Detail?

Ans. If the blood circulation is stopped or reduced, then necrosis is caused. This can be happened because of- 

  • More deposits of cholesterol and fatty acids in the bones. It causes the stuck in blood to flow from one organ to another.

  • Joint damages and Bone damages are also other causes of necrosis. Some drama or accident happened, and damage has taken place at the joints and the bones.

  • Several diseases which are already there in the human body which leads to the interruption of blood flow will become another cause for necrosis.

3. What are the Various Treatments Available for Necrosis?

Ans. We have various medications and therapies to cure necrosis. But it can be chosen based on the cause, severity of the damage. Few of them are- 

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs of nonsteroids.

  • Drugs used to reduce cholesterol levels

  • Blood thinners.

  • Medication through physiotherapy, diet chart, restricted resting times, etc.

  • Osteoporosis drugs. 

  • Stimulation of electricity etc.