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Meristematic Tissue

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What is Meristematic Tissue?

IVSAT 2024

The term meristem was coined by Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli. Meristematic tissues have undifferentiated cells, which form the building blocks of the specialized plant structures. Meristematic tissues have living cells with varied shapes. They possess a large nucleus devoid of the vacuole. The cells have no intercellular space. The place where these cells exist is called Meristem. The cells of the meristematic tissue have the capability of dividing themselves actively to make specialized structures, like buds of leaves and flowers, tips of roots and shoots, etc. These cells help to increase the length and bulkiness of the plant.


Characteristics of Meristematic Tissue

The characteristics of meristematic tissue are the following:

  • The cells of these tissues are known as Meristems.

  • It has the quality of self-renewal as every time the cell divides, one cell remains just like the parent cell and the others form specialized structures.

  • They have very small and few vacuoles.

  • The meristematic tissues are living and thin-walled.

  • The protoplasm of the cells is very dense.

  • The meristematic tissues heal the injuries of an injured plant.

  • These cells do not store food.

  • They exhibit a very high metabolic activity.

  • They possess a single, large, and prominent nucleus.


Types of Meristematic Tissue

The meristematic tissue is of the following types:


Meristematic Tissue on the Basis of Origin:

Promeristem

  • It is the earliest and youngest meristematic tissue.

  • It originates from the embryo.

  • The primary meristem arises from the promeristem.

  • It is found in the root and the shoot tips.


Primary Meristem

  • It arises from the promeristem.

  • Cells divide actively.

  • It is present a little below the promeristem and forms the permanent tissue.


Secondary Meristem

  • It originates from the primary meristem.

  • The permanent tissue forms from the secondary meristem.


Meristematic Tissue on the Basis of Position:

Apical Meristem

  • These are present at the tips of the roots and shoots and help in the increase in the height of the plants.

  • Various cell divisions facilitate the growth of the cells in the roots and shoots. and help in cellular enlargement.

  • The apical meristem has two parts into-promeristem zone, which contains actively dividing cells, and therefore the meristematic zone, which contains protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem.


Intercalary Meristem

  • It is located within the leaves and internodes at the intercalary position.

  • These help to increase the length of the internode.

  • It is in a neighborhood with grass, monocots, and pines.

  • It is a part of the apical meristem and adds to the peak of the plant.


Lateral Meristem

  • It is located in the stems and roots on the lateral side.

  • It increases the thickness of the plant.

  • Vascular cambium and cork cambium are the 2 lateral meristems.

  • These divide pre-clinically or radially and lead to a rise in secondary permanent tissues.


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Meristematic Tissue on the Basis of Function:

Protoderm

  • It is the outer plant tissue and forms the epidermis.

  • It protects the plants from any mechanical shocks.


Procambium

  • It is the innermost tissue and leads in the rise to xylem and phloem.

  • It helps in the transport of water and nutrients to different parts of the plant.


Ground Meristem

  • The cells are large with thick walls.

  • It forms the cortex, pericycle, and pith.

The meristematic tissue is generally found within the apices of the root systems and therefore the shoots are in a continuous state of division.

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FAQs on Meristematic Tissue

1. Define Meristematic Tissue?

A plant tissue that has the power to divide itself actively throughout its life is called a Meristematic Tissue.

2. Who discovered Meristematic Tissue?

The term meristem was coined by Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli.

3. What are the characteristics of Meristematic Tissue?

The characteristics of meristematic tissue are the following - 

  • The cells of these tissues are known as Meristems 

  • It has the quality of self-renewal as every time the cell divides, one cell remains just like the parent cell and the others form specialized structures.

  • They have very small and few vacuoles.

  • The meristematic tissues are living and thin-walled.

  • The protoplasm of the cells is very dense.

  • The meristematic tissues heal the injuries of an injured plant.

  • These cells do not store food.

  • They exhibit a very high metabolic activity.

  • They possess a single, large and prominent nucleus.

4. What are the two types of Meristematic Tissue?

The meristematic tissue is of two types - 

  1. On the basis of their position 

  2. On the basis of their function

5. What is an Intercalary Meristem?

An intercalary meristem is located within the leaves and internodes at the intercalary position. These help to increase the length of the internode. It is in a neighborhood with grass, monocots, and pines. It is a part of the apical meristem and adds to the peak of the plant.

6. Explain the characteristics of Meristematic Tissue?

Meristematic tissue has the following characteristics:

  • Meristems are the cells that make up these tissues.

  • It has the ability to self-renew because when a cell splits, one cell remains identical to the parent cell while the others divide to produce specialized structures.

  • They have a minimal number of vacuoles.

  • Meristematic tissues are living, thin-walled tissues.

  • The cells' protoplasm is extremely thick.

  • A wounded plant's injuries are healed by the meristematic tissues.

  • Food is not stored in these cells.

  • They have an extremely high metabolic rate.

  • They have a single nucleus that is big and conspicuous.

7. List of the uses of Meristematic Tissue?

Meristematic tissues have the following characteristics:

  • They're alive, and they're made up of an undifferentiated swarm of rapidly dividing cells.

  • The tissue is made up of totipotent (all-powerful) cells.

  • Cells might be spherical, polygonal, or rectangular in shape.

  • The cells remain embryonic (immature) and unspecialized indefinitely.

  • The nucleus is big and can be found in both interphase and subphases of divisions.

  • The cell wall is made up of cellulose, which is a homogeneous component.

  • The cells have a large nucleus and a lot of protoplasms.

  • Vacuoles are usually nonexistent or extremely tiny if they are present.

  • Other cell organelles are absent or in a non-functional state, with the exception of mitochondria.

  • If orgastic chemicals are missing, do not keep reserved food materials.

8. What is the Meristematic tissue function?

Functions of Meristematic Tissue:

  • They are the plant's actively dividing and rapidly dividing tissues, resulting in endless expansion.

  • The plant's primary growth (elongation) is controlled by primary meristems.

  • Meristematic tissue cells undergo differentiation to become permanent tissues.

  • Secondary meristems are also in charge of the plant's secondary growth (thickness and girth).

  • They aid in the development and creation of new organs.

  • They are in charge of the growth of secondary tissues such as wood, cork, and so on.

  • Meristematic tissues create buds, which can then develop into branches or flowers.

  • They assist in the healing of wounded tissues.

9. Explain the formation of Meristematic tissue on the basis of Function?

Protoderm

  • The epidermis is the outermost layer of plant tissue.

  • It safeguards the plants against mechanical shocks.

Procambium

  • It is the most inner tissue, giving rise to the xylem and phloem.

  • It aids in the transportation of water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Meristem of the Ground

  • The cells are spacious and have sturdy walls.

  • It is responsible for the formation of the cortex, pericycle, and pith.

  • Because meristematic tissue is mostly present near the apices of root systems, the shoots are constantly dividing.