Fracture Dislocation

Fracture and Dislocation of Bone

Dislocations and fractures are the two most common bone and joint injuries. If the bone slips or moves from the joints, it is known as the dislocation of bones. This mainly occurs due to the sudden impact of a forceful blow or other trauma. The dislocation of bones is common in ankles, knees, hips, shoulders, jaws, fingers, toes, or elbows. 


When extreme pressure is applied to the bone, it split or breaks into few pieces. This is known as a fracture. The main causes for fracture are trauma, accident, repetitive stress, the direct blow of pressure, and weakness of bones. Children have more possibility to face fracture. 

Types of Fracture 

The fractures are mainly classified into three types. They are open fracture, closed fracture, and displaced fracture.  

Open Fracture 

If the bone is broken with the opening of the skin, it is known as an open fracture. Open fracture gets infected soon. An open fracture requires immediate medication and surgery for better treatment. Surgeons suggest rods and screw for treating the open fracture. 

Closed Fracture 

Closed fracture has more risk than open fracture. The bone inside the skin gets injured but the skin on closed fracture remains the same. This can be identified using an x-ray. Immobilization of the injured areas is the best treatment for closed fractures.    

Displaced Fracture 

If the bones are broken into two or more pieces, they are known as displaced fractures. It causes swelling. Keeping the injured area undisturbed be the best treatment for the displaced fracture. Sometimes, experts suggest surgery.  


Fractures are subclassified into 10 types. The fracture sub classification comes under open, closed, and displaced fractures. They are listed below. 

  1. Transverse Fracture - It looks like a straight line of a crack in a bone. 

  2. Spiral Fracture - It usually occurs in long bones, the fracture looks like a spiral in shape. 

  3. Greenstick Fracture - Occurs due to bent or broken bones. These fractures mainly occur in children.  It is also known as a partial fracture. 

  4. Stress Fracture - Stress fractures occur mainly due to repetitive actions like running. It is difficult to diagnose through x-ray. These fractures are also known as hairline fractures

  5. Compression Fracture - This fracture occurs in broken bones. Here, the broken bones will become wider or flatter. 

  6. Oblique Fracture - The bone across the diagonal structure is known as oblique fracture

  7. Segmental Fracture - If the same bone broken in two places and left a piece of bone floating is known as a segmental fracture. This type of fracture usually occurs in long bones.

  8. Impacted Fracture - The impacted fracture occurs in the bone if the two broken pieces are jammed together by an external force. 

  9. Avulsion Fracture - when a fragment is pulled off the bone causes a tendon or ligament. It is known as an avulsion fracture.

  10.  Comminuted Fracture -   If the bones are broken into 3 or more pieces, then it is known as a comminuted fracture. 

[Image will be Uploaded Soon]

Difference Between Fracture and Dislocation

Fracture mainly occurs due to breaks or cracks in the bone. While dislocation occurs at the connecting joins of bone mainly due to the displacement of bones.  The symptoms of fracture dislocation are common. Both look similar before the medical examination.  

Symptoms of Fractures 

Bleeding, Tenderness, Deformity, severe pain and discomforts, broken skin during open fracture, loss of motion, swelling...etc. 

Symptoms of Dislocations

Dislocations cause swelling, immobility at the affected part, intense pain, burning, instability..etc. It is difficult to identify the dislocation of bones with a physical examination.  


Only X-ray and scanning are important to diagnose and differentiate fracture and dislocation. Only after the proper diagnosis method, physicians can offer more for the treatment. 

Dislocation and Fracture Risk Factors

Fracture dislocation is dangerous and it cannot leave as untreated. The person in the sports field or who is lifting heavy weight or who is working in heights have a high chance to face fractures and dislocation.  Other risk factors are accidents, genetic disorders, traumatic events..etc.  

List of Factors, Which Increases the Risk of Fracture are:

  1. Smoking

  2. Steroids

  3. Drinking alcohol

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis

  5. Diabetes

  6. Osteoporosis

  7. Previous low-impact fractures

  8. Crohn’s disease, Celiac disease, and ulcerative colitis

Fracture and Dislocation Treatment

Leaving the fractured or dislocated bone untreated is more dangerous, it can cause severe impacts. It is preferable to contact a trauma specialist for the best remedy. Physicians will start to treat fractures and dislocation only after researching the medical history of patients. They examine the age of patients, bone type, cause, defect rate, rehabilitation rate of the bones to treat the fracture and dislocation. The bone will start to reconstruct after a few weeks to a month of treatment. 


The major fracture treatments are of two types. They are plaster and fibreglass cast methods. In extreme cases, splints, braces, and surgery are preferred to treat, it mainly depends on the type and severity of the fracture. Usually, bone has the capability to rebuild on its own, it remains undisturbed. Doctors can treat fracture dislocation through splint or orthopaedic cast or surgery or regular physiotherapist therapy or through medication to promote bone health

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What Causes Fractures and Dislocations?

Ans. The hardest tissues in a body are bone. But the breakage, dislocation, injuries, or cracks in bones are common. Fractures and dislocations are mainly caused by prolonged stress, overuse, bone weakening diseases such as osteoporosis or tumours. Dislocation of joints can be realigned quickly but dislocation causes severe damage of blood vessels and nerve more than fractures. More complications occur during the first hours or the first day after the bone injury. 

Q2. What is the Difference Between Fracture and Dislocation?

Ans. The luxation of bone is known as dislocation. It is usually difficult to distinguish the difference between fracture and dislocation, just through physical examination. Because the initial system of both looks the same. During dislocation, the joints and bones get separated from their natural position. Fractures are caused due to the breakage of a bone. The symptoms of dislocation and fractures are swelling, bruising, or bleeding with intense pain. To treat fracture or dislocation, one should search for immediate medical help, should ice on injured point, must keep in a fixed position, can undergo surgery with suitable medical advice.