A cell needs various compartments to carry out a mix of functions that are necessary not only for the working of the cell but the organism as a whole especially in the case of multicellular organisms. Out of the many different compartments known as cell organelles, there are two specialized centers, one for production and the other for degradation. They are known as ribosomes and lysosomes responsible for the production of proteins and destruction of proteins respectively. Thus, lysosomes and ribosomes are two different cell organelles that are very different in their function and are different in their physiological nature as well. Lysosomes on one hand are the organelles responsible for the breakdown of many types of biological molecules whereas ribosomes are macromolecular machines that are responsible for performing protein synthesis. In terms of nature, lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles whereas ribosomes do not have a membrane. So, even though they are cell organelles there is a considerable difference between lysosomes and ribosomes.
Moving further a brief description of the lysosomes and ribosomes is provided below. It will be followed by a difference between lysosomes and ribosomes.
As described above lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles whose function is to break down different biomolecules such as nucleic acids, peptides, carbohydrates, and lipids. They are spherical vesicles that consist of many hydrolytic enzymes that break the molecules. It is known that lysosomes are the waste disposal system of the cells. This is because they digest the biomolecules present in the cytoplasm irrespective of the origin of the material either belonging to the cell or coming from the outside via autophagy or endocytosis respectively.
A typical lysosome consists of a membrane and its lumenal proteins. The lumen of a lysosome provides an acidic environment of pH range 4.5-5.0 for the proteins to carry out their hydrolytic functions and their sustenance which is not possible in the cytoplasm. Thus, this effectively helps in avoiding the degradation of functional proteins in the cytoplasm. The molecules that are destined for lysosomes are specifically tagged by mannose-6-phosphate so that they end up in acidic vesicles that are being routed to the lysosomes.
An important fact about the lysosomes is that it is a unique cell organelle present mostly in the animal cell only. They are quite less in number in plant cells.
Ribosomes are the molecular machinery whose function is to carry out protein synthesis. Thus, this is the site of protein production in the cell. For this reason, ribosomes and the related molecules are known as translational apparatus. They are generally found either floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Even though they are identified as cell organelle, a characteristic difference between lysosomes and ribosomes is that the ribosomes are made up of protein subunits which when combined together form the ribosomal complex. It consists of two subunits: small and large ribosomal subunits where each subunit is made up of ribosomal RNA molecules and ribosomal proteins. This is because ribosomes link the amino acids together as per the codons of messenger RNA.
Unlike the lysosomes, ribosomes are found in all types of cells and are essential parts of any eukaryotic cell.
Difference Between Lysosomes and Ribosomes
The difference between lysosomes and ribosomes can be summarized and is shown below:
As you go through the given diagram the difference between lysosomes and ribosomes will be quite evident. The diagram is as follows:
[Image will be uploaded soon]
Thus, there is a significant difference between lysosomes and ribosomes both in terms of their function and their structure. Despite the difference between lysosomes and ribosomes, each one of them is vital for the proper functioning of a eukaryotic cell especially an animal cell.