Disease happens for a various of reasons. Some diseases represent random changes in a cell's ability to proliferate and function normally, and in other situations, the disease occurs when external stimuli cause changes in the cell's environment that prevent the cell from maintaining Homeostasis.
It includes hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, and metaplasia and may be physiological or pathological, depending on whether the stimulus is normal or abnormal.
A cell may adapt to a certain point, but if the stimulus continues beyond that point, it may result in cell failure, and hence organ failure.
In this article hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and its differences are discussed in detail.
Hypertrophy is the growth of a given tissue or organ. It does not include an increase due to adhesion or deposition of fat, or because of cell proliferation.
Hypertrophy is only due to the enlargement of the cells of the tissue or organ. It occurs in permanent cells (non-dividing, like muscle skeletal, cardiac muscle, etc.).
Hypertrophy is Divided into Two Types, They are:
Physiological Hypertrophy: After the demand is reduced the tissues return to their initial state.
Pathological Hypertrophy: Even after the demand is reduced the tissues do not return to their initial state.
Depending on the reason that cause it the hypertrophy can be:
It occurs in response to increased load from a certain organ (e.g. when a person has a heart defect). Either the valve through which the heart has to push blood contracts or the valves are not completely closed in this condition.
In both cases, it takes more hard effort for treat. Muscle cells increase their number, and myofibrils accumulate. In healthy people, the heart can also increase in size. for example, athletes. The cardiovascular load increases with large physical loads which results in compensatory hypertrophy.
It happens when one part of an organ dies or gets removed. This organ's remaining cells increase their volume and begin working more intensively to compensate for the loss. This is possible, for example, in kidney and liver diseases.
It develops on the loss of one of the two double organs. The remaining organ assumes the entire load and increases significantly. This happens for example after removing one kidney.
Vicarious hypertrophy occurs on the loss of one of the two double organs. The remaining organ absorbs all of the load and greatly increases. For example: This occurs after removal of the one kidney.
Hyperplasia is termed when there is an increase in the amount of a tissue that results from cell proliferation. It can lead to a considerable enlargement of a certain organ.
A common response to a stimulus is the hyperplasia. The cells which have been obtained are normal but in increased numbers. The modification of adaptive cells in hyperplasia is an increase in cell count. It happens in stable or labile dividing cells.
Hyperplasia can be a normal (physiological) or pathogenic response to some stimulus. Development hormones control cells that undergo hyperplasia, and proliferation ceases when the stimulus is removed.
Hyperplastic Growth Can be due to Various Stimuli:
Due to increase in demand (e.g. for compensation of skin loss)
Due to any hormonal dysfunctions,
chronic inflammatory response
An example of hyperplasia is the proliferation of milk-secreting glandular cells in the breasts during pregnancy.
The hemihyperplasia is yet another example of hyperplasia. This is a hyperplasia that affects only one side of the body and can be linked to the generation of limbs of various sizes.
Compensatory hyperplasia occurs after an acute wound in the liver. It leads to the production of new cells, restoring liver function.
Sebaceous hyperplasia is a condition in which the skin of the face shows small yellowish growths.
Though hypertrophy and hyperplasia commonly represent the changes in cell ability and functions. Both are different from each other. Let’s see hypertrophy and hyperplasia differences below.
Q1: Can Hyperplasia and Hypertrophy Occur Together?
Ans: Although hypertrophy and hyperplasia are two distinct processes, they frequently occur together, such as in the case of the hormonally-induced proliferation and enlargement of the cells of the uterus during pregnancy.
Q2: What is an Example of Hyperplasia?
Physiological Hyperplasia: This happens due to a normal stressor. For example, increase in breast size during pregnancy, increase in endometrium thickness during menstrual cycle, and post partial resection growth of the liver.
Pathological Hyperplasia: This happens due to an abnormal stressor.
Q3: What is the Cause of Hypertrophy?
Ans: Many health conditions make your heart work harder than normal. High blood pressure (hypertension), is the most common cause of LVH.
Other causes include exercise-related athletic hypertrophy, valve disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM), and congenital heart disease.
Q4: What are the Two Types of Hypertrophy?
Ans: Muscular hypertrophy is classified into two types.
Myofibrillar: Growth of muscle contraction parts.
Sarcoplasmic: Muscle glycogen storage is increased