Today, we will learn about the deciduous forest, deciduous forest definition, different deciduous trees, their characteristics, and the different types of vegetation of the biome. A forest characterized by trees or plants, shedding its leaves annually is known as a deciduous forest. Plants like mosses, herbs, and ferns are found in these forests. Deciduous forests are mainly observed in North America, Europe, and Asia. We have temperate deciduous forests, tropical and subtropical Deciduous forests (dry forests). The word ‘deciduous’ means “tending to fall”. A biome, generally characterized by broadleaved trees or shrubs, shedding its leaves annually (usually in autumn), is known as a deciduous forest.
Deciduous Forest Location
There are several deciduous forests all over the world. Some of them are located in Asia, Europe, and North America.
Deciduous Forest Climate
All the deciduous forests have a particular temperature and rainfall range. The average temperature of these forests is 50 degrees and the annual rainfall is around 30-60 inches.
Deciduous Forest Animals
There are different types of animals living in these forests. Most of the animals are insects, spiders, reptiles, birds, etc. Different types of mammals such as rabbits, mice, fox, deer, bears, etc. live in the deciduous forests. Also, tigers, giraffes, elephants, etc. live in the tropical and subtropical deciduous forests.
Deciduous Forest Trees
Trees found in deciduous forests shed their leaves annually, and hence the name. Amongst the trees, chestnuts, oaks, maples, beeches are mainly observed. Shrubs are mainly found in light abundant areas, like clearings or edges of the forests. The flowering plants enhance the beauty of the forest during the spring, followed by fresh green leaves after the winter. The trees are generally broad-leaved.
Grey-brown soil and ground podzols are suitable for the growth of deciduous forests. The soil is slightly acidic, having a granular humus layer called mull. Some deciduous trees growing close to streams, rivers, or moist areas, forbid the soil to erode and wash away with the stream.
The process in which the deciduous plants shed all their leaves every year is called ‘abscission’. This process is dependent on climatic changes, variation of rainfall.
Deciduous Forest Characteristics
Here, we have given some major characteristics of the deciduous forest.
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Out of the four seasons, the deciduous forests grow in one of the suitable seasons.
Deciduous forests are rich in moisture.
The soil of the deciduous forests is rich in minerals. The leaves shed on the soils provide organic material for it. Organic matter is broken down by many species present in the soil.
The leaves are generally broad-leaved, arranged in the canopy: understory, shrub, and ground.
During the shedding of leaves, the plants enter a dormant period.
Deciduous forests are mainly characterized by Northern Hardwood, Central Hardwood, and South Pine and Oak.
Deciduous Forest Examples
Let’s discuss the examples of deciduous forests. Some famous deciduous forests are the European Temperate Deciduous Forest, Northeast China Plain, and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (UK).
Deciduous forests are mainly characterized by deciduous trees, shedding their leaves annually. Chestnuts, oaks, maples, beeches, and lindens are largely observed in deciduous forests. The variation in their shape and height results in a dense growth of the forests. Conifers like fir, spruce, and pine trees are also observed in this biome.
Did You Know?
After going through the definition of deciduous forests, their characteristics here’s some more information about deciduous forests. The leaves of the deciduous forests are shed generally in the cold season. Upon the arrival of the cold season, the chlorophyll is broken down and withdrawn. The waste products of the photosynthesis remain to colour the leaves with various colours. The stomata are present on the surface of pine needles, hence are not protected. The needles protect against the cold and snow in the northern climates. The plants are characterized by thorns to keep away different animals.
Deciduous forests play an important role in the balance of our ecosystem. In this particular biome, a large variety of flora and fauna is observed. The trees provide shelter for different animals, birds, and insects. The leaves shed in the winter season provide the soil with various minerals. Decomposers like fungi, bacteria, and worms provide nutrients for the plants.