Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

Central dogma is an inheritance mechanism that encodes the genetic information present in DNA and transfers them to RNA and protein. Here are some key terms to understand the mechanism correctly –

Key Terms Involved with the Process

  • DNA

The full form of DNA is Deoxyribonucleic acid. This molecule carries all the genetic code of living beings.

  • mRNA

RNA is Ribonucleic acid, and mRNA is messenger RNA. mRNA helps to encode chemical information for any protein product.

  • Ribosome

A ribosome is a macromolecule that performs protein synthesis in a cell. 

  • Codon

It is a sequence of three RNA or DNA nucleotides that code for a certain amino acid during the process of protein synthesis.

Gene is a molecular entity that can replicate, transcript, translate, and mutate. It consists of DNA and is situated in the chromosome linearly. Genes can also encode regulatory and structural RNAs. Several protein-encoding genes are present in both animal and plant cells that help in cellular functions.

 Central Dogma Definition

Central dogma is a process of molecular biology that transfers genetic information from DNA to RNA and produces a functional protein product.

The central dogma process explains the transformation of the genetic information called DNA replication, RNA encoding by transcription, and encoding for protein through translation.

This sequential interaction primarily includes biopolymers. Mostly, biopolymers like DNA, RNA, and proteins divide three types of transfers – general, unknown, and special transfers.

One strand of the new DNA is parent DNA, and the other one is newly synthesised. This process is known as semiconservative DNA replication. Thus, both transcription and translation add to the central dogma meaning.

Steps Involved

Central dogma process occurs in two steps-

  • Transcription Process – DNA to RNA

Through the transcription process, the genetic information transfers from one single strand of DNA to RNA. In this process, the initial stage of gene expresses where the DNA stretch is transcribed RNA. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase helps to complete this process. The single participant strand of DNA has three parts – terminator, structural gene, and promoter.

 The one DNA strand that help in synthesising RNA is termed as template, and another strand is known as a coding strand. Then the binding of RNA Polymerase and the promoter occurs. This process is called polymerisation.

 Some of the transcripts encode regulatory or structural RNAs, and some use proteins. If a protein is encoded by the transcribed gene, it results in mRNA or messenger RNA. This mRNA helps to create the protein in translation.

  • Translation Process – RNA to Protein

During the translation process, messenger RNA is decoded and translated to create a protein or polypeptide sequence. Charged tRNA provides energy to activate this process. The ribosome comprising a larger and a smaller subunit starts this process.

Two closely situated tRNA molecules in the larger subunit form the peptide bond. By decoding the genetic message of mRNA, a new polypeptide sequence is formed. The tRNA translates the codons chain situated on the strand of mRNA.

From cytoplasm, tRNA continues transferring free molecules of amino acid to the developing polypeptide sequence in the ribosome until the chain can stop a codon placed on mRNA. After completing the formation of protein, the ribosome releases it into the cell.

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FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is central dogma?

The central dogma is a mechanism of genetic biology that transcripts genetic message from DNA to RNA and translate those from RNA to protein.

2. What do you mean by central dogma?

Central dogma refers to a biological mechanism that includes both transcription and translation of genetic information. In this process, the genetic message is encoded in DNA transfer to mRNA in a unidirectional way by transcription, and protein synthesis occurs through translation.

3. What is the central dogma of molecular biology?

The central dogma of molecular biology refers to the genetic message transferring process between DNA to RNA molecule and RNA to a protein molecule.