While doing a study of the anatomy of plants, we come across an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem, which is known as bud. After the formation of bud in plants, it remains in a phase of dormancy for a certain period of time but sometimes they also get converted into shoots immediately.
Their main specialisation is to get converted into a shoot or flower depending on the need or type of plant. They arise on the stem of the vascular plant and further get developed into flower, leaf or shoot. The major origin point of bud is meristem tissue.
Trees that mainly grow in temperate climates form resting buds have the capability to frost in preparation for winter.
Based on the growth of buds we can identify plants especially in woody plants in winters when leaves have fallen.
Classification of buds can be done based on different factors like location, status, morphology and function:
Terminal Buds: When the bud is located at the tip of a stem
Axillary Bud: When the bud is located in the axil of a leaf
Adventitious Bud: When the bud is occurring elsewhere like on the trunk or on roots
Accessory Bud: These are secondary buds formed besides a principal bud
Resting Bud: Buds that are grown at the end of a growing season, which will lie dormant until the onset of the next growing season.
Pseudoterminal: They are a kind of an axillary bud taking over the function of a terminal bud
Scaly Buds: When scale covers the embryonic part for protection work.
Hairy Buds: When there is a hairy appearance for doing protection.
Vegetative Bud: If buds containing vegetative pieces like embryonic shoot with leaves
Reproductive Bud: Bud which contains embryonic flowers.
Mixed Bud: When buds have both embryonic leaves and flowers.
It is an asexual mode of reproduction for producing a new organism. Under this process, a new organism is formed from a small part of the parent’s body. After bud formation, they detach themself from their parent body to develop into new individuals. As bud formation is a kind of asexual reproduction, so the newly formed individual is a true replica of its and is also genetically similar to their parents.
One of the common examples of budding is seen in hydra, as they use their regenerative cell where bud expands as an outgrowth as there is repeated cell division at a specific location of the plant. Further, these buds develop into new individuals, which get detached from the parent body after attaining complete maturity. Along with hydra yeast also shows a budding process.
Budding is commonly seen in both unicellular and multicellular organism and it is an asexual mode of reproduction. Some organisms which undergo budding processes are bacteria, yeast, corals, flatworms, Jellyfish and sea anemones.
Yeast also reproduces with budding, as it is a non-green single-celled microorganism of kingdom fungi and their size is generally larger than bacteria. In yeasts, budding processes only occur when there is an abundant supply of nutrition. A very small bud arises from the parent body which leads to the separation of parent yeast into two parts and one of the nuclei gets shifted to bud. At last, a newly created bud detaches itself from the parent body and gets developed into new individuals.
Hydra is considered to be a freshwater organism, with a length of just centimetres. It belongs to a Cnidarian family with a tubular shape body made up of a head, distal and a foot at the end part. In hydra, a small bud develops from the parent body through a repeated mitotic division. This small bud receives all kinds of nutrition from the parent body and grows. The growth of the new hydra starts with tentacles and the month. After attaining maturity, the newly formed hydra detach themself from their parent body and develop into new individuals.
1. Explain the term bud dormancy.
It is known to be an inactive state, under which most of the physiological activities of the bud slow down. Bud dormancy mainly occurs to avoid stress and extreme environmental conditions such as heat, drought, cold, etc. Once the favourable condition is obtained by bud, the growth resumes.
2. Explain the term flower bud.
Bud is a small outgrowth or terminal protuberance on the stem of a vascular plant. Certain buds may develop into a flower, leaf, or shoot. They arise from meristem tissue.
3. Explain the functioning of bud.
Buds’ main specialization is to develop into flowers or short/small shoots. We also use the term bud in biology to refer to the outgrowth that comes from the body, which further develops into new individuals.