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Brachial Artery

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Understand the Basics and Functioning of Brachial Artery

The human body is full of complex structures which is simply explained by science. From head to toe, there are muscles, arteries, veins all over the human body. But do you know which artery constitutes a human arm? In the human arm, Brachial Artery works as the main supply for the arm. This artery is close to the humerus. Due to this, various clinical examinations are made from this artery. When a person measures the blood pressure and pulse rate, brachial artery anatomy helps in providing these results. With this article, we have mentioned all the details, relations, functions, and branches of this artery.

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Brachial Artery Course 

The continuation of the axillary artery proves to be the Brachial artery origin. The proximal Brachial artery is the axillary artery continuation. It lies in the medial upper arm. This artery lies medially in the biceps brachii muscle and anterior to the medial head of the triceps. The Brachial Artery function is to supply blood throughout the arm. 

Brachial Artery Relations

As far as brachial artery relations are studied, its relationship with other arm structures is important from the point of view of clinical practice. This artery is covered by layers of skin and a superficial vessel. However, there are few exceptions to this brachial artery anatomy relations:

1. The first exception lies in the cubital fossa. In this, the bicipital aponeurosis covers the artery. Due to this, it gets separated from the median cubital vein. 

2. Another exception to this brachial artery course relations, occurs when the median nerve crosses the brachial artery.

Branches of Brachial Artery

There are eight branches of the brachial artery in the human body. These includes:

1. Profunda Brachii Artery:

The profunda brachii artery runs between the medial and long heads of the triceps brachii muscle. This gets further divided into two branches, i.e., middle ulnar collateral and radial artery.

2. Nutrient Artery of the Humerus

The nutrient artery of the humerus starts from the middle of the arm. It enters before the nutrient canal and is near the attachment of the coracobrachialis.

3. Superior Ulnar Collateral Artery

This artery originates from the brachial artery slightly to the middle-level of the arm. After which it moves between the medial epicondyle of the humerus and the ulnar epicondyle.

4. Middle Ulnar Collateral Artery

This artery arises between the inferior and superior ulnar collateral arteries. It travels to the medial epicondyle.

5. Inferior Ulnar Collateral (Supratrochlear) Artery

This artery lies between the brachialis muscle and the median curve. However, it does not cross the medial intermuscular septum. After which, it gets curved to the humerus between bone and triceps muscles.

6. Deltoid (Ascending) Artery

This artery lies between the lateral and long head of the triceps branch. It ends at the point where it reaches the branch of the posterior humeral circumflex artery.

7. Radial Artery

In the brachial artery anatomy, this is one of the branches of it. It flows deep to the brachioradialis. This gives off the radial recurrent artery distal to the elbow joint.

8. Ulnar Artery

It is the largest branch among all branches of the brachial artery. The ulnar artery is subsequently divided into two branches which include anterior and posterior branches. This artery proceeds down to the arm and finally supplies to the hand.

However, the brachial artery diagram provides a better understanding and clarity about the branches of this artery. 

Fun Fact - Brachial Artery Mnemonic

It becomes a little easy to remember the branches of this artery with the brachial artery diagram. But, there is another way to remember it. The brachial artery mnemonic is:


November rain

Sweet child 

O' Mine

It's so easy, and 

Don't stop 



Here, P denotes Profunda brachii, N for Nutrient artery of the humerus, S for Superior ulnar collateral artery, M for Middle ulnar collateral artery, I for Inferior ulnar collateral artery, D for Deltoid artery, R for Radial artery, and U for Ulnar artery. 

In this way, the eight branches can be easily remembered. Apart from this mnemonic, there is one more mnemonic that can help to remember the anastomosis of the ulnar collateral and recurrent branches. 

I Am Pretty Smart

1. In this mnemonic, I and A means that the Inferior ulnar collateral artery moves with the Anterior branch of the ulnar recurrent artery.

2. The P and S denote that the Superior ulnar artery goes with the Posterior branch of the ulnar recurrent artery. 


The information regarding the brachial artery function or origin can be important for any person. This artery is important in the human body and supplies blood to the arm. Brachial artery origin is from the axillary artery. However, the branches of this artery are broad and may take time to remember. With this article, we have covered all the things about brachial artery anatomy.

Last updated date: 30th Sep 2023
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FAQs on Brachial Artery

1. Does the absence of a brachial artery lead to the death of a person?

The whole Brachial artery course is important for the human body because it supplies blood to the arm and hand. If in case of an accident or surgery, the brachial artery is cut out or removed, it can lead to the death of the person. It is so because this artery is very deep inside the muscle. Any removal or cut of this artery will make a human unconscious within 15 seconds and may die within a minimum of 90 seconds. Any weapon like a knife can cause a cut in this artery, leading to the worsening of a case. Therefore, it is not possible to live without the brachial artery. 

2. How to determine if the Brachial artery is injured?

We cannot see this artery as well as we can see in a Brachial artery diagram. Therefore, sometimes it becomes difficult to judge whether it is injured or not. The symptoms of injured brachial artery include expanding pulsatile hematoma, brisk bleeding, absent or weak radial, pale and cold upper extremities, and ulnar pulses. These symptoms can help a person to determine the injury of this artery. In case of injury, it is important to seek treatment immediately. It is so because any delay in the treatment can cause the case to worsen.