Blind Spot

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What is Blind Spot?

The human eye holds great importance in our daily life. It provides us with the vision and we are able to see whatever happens in our surroundings. The blind spot in eye is also known as the scotoma. The blind spot definition is that it is the point where the optic nerve and the blood vessels leave the eyeball. The images are seen by our eyes and the brain interprets them. The optic nerve carries the images to the brain for processing. This is how we see different things in our daily lives. 

The blind spot in eye is the area where no image is formed. The optic nerve leaves the eyeball through this area. The physiological blind spot is also known as the obscuration of the visual field. In medical literature, the blind spot is known as punctum caecum. In the area of the blind spot, there is a lack of light-detecting photoreceptor cells because there are no cells on the optic disc to detect light, the corresponding vision is invisible. Also, there are some processes in our brain that interpolate the blind spot by surrounding details and other eyes and so we are not able to perceive the blind spot. The blind spot is present in all the vertebrates except the cephalopod eye. In order to understand more about the blind spot, we need to first thoroughly understand the human eye and then learn about what is blind spot. 

Eye

Eyes are located in the skull cavity called orbits. Their weight is around 7grams. They operate on the same principle as that of the camera. The light from all parts of the visual field is focused on a sheet of light-sensitive cells. This is done by a single lens. The visual field is the area from which the eyes collect the light rays. The retina is the name of the sheet that has light-sensitive cells. The eyeball is made up of three layers and is sclera the outer layer, the choroid the middle layer and the retina the inner layer. 

Sclera

This layer is made up of dense connective tissue. Due to this, it is a tough layer. The colour of the sclera is milky white. The cornea is present in its front and this cornea acts as a refracting structure. The cornea helps to bend and focus the light rays onto the retina so that the image can be formed clearly. 

Choroid

It is the middle layer of the eye. It is pigmented with melanin and has a good supply of blood vessels. It is bluish in colour. The sclera covers the choroid therefore it is not visible from the outside. It plays a great role in the formation of an image. This layer helps in preventing the reflections within the eye. Like inside a camera we have black paint, this layer functions just like that of the camera. 

Retina

It is the innermost coat of the eyeball. This layer contains the actual light receptors. Rods and cones are present that help to identify different colours. An epithelium pigment and a neural portion are present in the retina. In the epithelium a sheet of melanin-containing epithelial cells is present. The melanin absorbs the stray light and prevents it from reflection and scattering. 

The blind spot retina is present on the retina. It is also known as the optic disk blind spot. 

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 Ganglion Cells

Retinal ganglion cells are present next to the layer of bipolar cells. The ganglion cells are present in a synapse with the retinal cells. The axons of the retinal ganglion cells are present in a bundle and they form the optic nerve. This optic nerve leaves the eye and the retinal blood vessels enter it. At this point, it is medial to the posterior pole of the eyeball. The blind spot in eye is the point from which these optic nerves leave the retina. On the blind spot, rods and cones are not present. 

As no image is formed in this area it is therefore known as a blind spot. On the posterior pole of the eye, the macula lutea is present. It is a yellowish pigment. It is present lateral to the blind spot. The fovea is present on the macula lutea and this is a thinned portion of the retina. The fovea is the place where only densely packed cones are present. At this point, vision activity is the highest and the vision is the clearest. This gave us a clear idea about what is blind spot. 

Blind Spot Function

This will give us a clear idea about what is blind spot of the eye. An example of a what is blind spot in human eye is in our daily life is when we are driving and trying to switch lanes and then we think it is clear but when we double-check we find a vehicle in the lane next to us. This is one example of the blind spot and is called a scotoma. As we know that the blind spot is the area where the optic nerve and the blood vessels leave the eyeball. This is where is the blind spot in the eye. The optic nerve carries the images to the brain where they are processed. This is how we see images. We see the object, an image is formed in the eye and then it is interpreted in the brain. 

To compensate for the blind spots, we have side-view mirrors installed in our cars. When we travel there are some cars that often fall into our blind spot and this is where the side-view mirror helps. It helps in bringing us a different field of view so that we can see the part of the image that is formed in our blind spot. In our eyes, we all have blind spots about the size of pinholes. No photoreceptors are present in this area. As there are no photoreceptors, no images are formed and thus the eye is not able to send any signals to the brain for interpretation. The blind spot is normal and it is not a thing to worry about. If the blind spot size keeps on increasing then we need to see the doctor. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Define Blind Spot and Macula Lutea.

Answer: Blindspot is present in the retina. It is the area from which the optic nerve leaves the retina. On this blindspot, no photoreceptor cells are present and thus no image is formed on this part. Macula lutea is the yellowish pigmented spot. It is present on the posterior pole of the eye. It is located lateral to the blind spot. The fovea is present on the macula lutea. On this fovea, only cones are present. As only cones are present on it the images formed on it are very clear and sharpest. Thus, blindspot and macula lutea are opposite to each other in function. 

2. What is the Aqueous and Vitreous Chamber?

Answer: The interior of the eyeball is divided into two chambers. These two chambers are divided by the iris and the lens. An aqueous chamber is present on the anterior end. It is present in between the cornea and the lens. It is filled with thin watery fluid which is called aqueous humour. This aqueous humour is then drained into the blood. The vitreous chamber is present on the posterior end. It is a space between the lens and the retina. It is filled with transparent semi-solid gelatinous material called the vitreous humour.