We all know that pollination is mainly carried out by insects. But because of insufficient pollination, it affects the fruit and seed set and resistance to herbivores, all these are because of limited outcrossing opportunities. To overcome all these affects artificial pollination is carried out by humans, in this process we can use mechanical technique to pollinate plants. In this type of pollination we don't need any insects or weather. Application of this technique is important because most of the time there are not enough pollinators to perform pollination and sometimes their introduction is risky also. So this technique is considered as an alternative to natural pollination.
In this type of pollination we use a mechanical method by which we carry pollen or plant sperm from one flower to another flower, which enables the pollen to fertilize the ovaries and create seeds that will develop into fruits and new plants. With the decreasing number of bees, artificial pollination is more coming in trend. If we take the example of China, 100% plants are pollinated artificially. So, in that way article pollination is beneficial also.
There are several methods which are involved in artificial pollination. Some of them are listed below:
This method is mainly used for the vegetable plants, which have separate male and female parts. In this technique we take male flowers and remove its petals. Without touching stamen we have to do this process to avoid the pollen transfer to your fingers. After this we have to search for a blooming female flower with its petals pushed back. And lastly we have to touch the stamens of the male flower to the stigma of the female flower and after that roll then smoothly and gently, so that there pollen gets transferred to stigma and pollination can happen.
In the second method we can move cotton over the stamens of male flowers to collect as much pollen grains as possible. After this shed the collected pollen over the stigma of the female flower.
This method is mainly applicable for those plants who undergo self pollination like tomatoes, beans, pepper, etc. Mainly we set up fans over their branches for shaking stems so that pollen grains fall over the stigma.
There are so many advantages of artificial pollination, some of them are listed below:
1. By this pollination we can increase the fruit size and seed numbers.
2. It has the ability of conversion from flowers to export fruits.
3. It is more suitable because it does not depend on any chance factors.
4. By this type of pollination we can generate a large variety of hybrid plants