Air, Water, and Soil

Earth is a planet that consists of life sustainable elements in it. This is the only planet that consists of all the 3 life elements: air, water, and soil.


This is one of the most important non-living resources which is used for survival. It is essential for every living organism as they use water as a medium for all the chemical reactions happening inside the body. Water is present in huge bodies such as ocean, seas, rivers, and lakes. The water is converted into various forms such as water vapour, snow, glaciers, and ice shelves.

Earth is composed majorly of water and other part is made of land. 97% of water is found in oceans which is salty to taste and cannot be consumed on daily basis. Of the 3% available as fresh water, 98% of freshwater present is in the form of glaciers and ice. Of this whole fresh water, small portion only is available in rivers and lakes.

Uses of Water

Water plays a major role in the world's economy. Approximately, 70% of the water used by human beings constitute agricultural purposes. Major food component in the majority of the countries is the fish which is available in both salt and fresh water bodies. Water is also used as a means of transport for shipping various products around the globe such as oil, natural gas, and solid goods.

Water is converted in the form of steam and is used for cooling and heating purposes. It acts as a solvent in both mineral and organic which is used in industrial processes such as cooking and washing. This is used in ice form to make use for surfing, skating purposes.


A mixture of gases which is composed of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and a small percentage of wate vapour and other gases. The oxygen produced by the plants present on earth makes it a sustainable place for living organisms. This oxygen is produced from carbon dioxide.

The oxygen available in the atmosphere is used for preparing food. The carbon dioxide exhaled by the living organisms is utilized by plants using the energy from the sun to produce food.

Uses of Air

  • It regulates the temperature of earth.

  • Due to this regulation, there are changes in weather and different climatic conditions occur accordingly.


Earth consists of 3 main layers and they are: Crust, Mantle, and Core. The soil plays a major role in maintaining the atmosphere of earth as it provides the shielding for development of plants which produce oxygen. A living organism requires enough vitamins and minerals. These minerals are available in the upper crust layer of earth.

Due to the availability of these minerals in huge rock structures, it is not possible for the living organisms to use. Hence, these mineral particles are made into small forms known as Soil. This soil consists of mineral components such as Iron, Zinc, Nitrogen compounds, etc. which are required for survival of living organisms. Soil acts as a substance for retaining the water which is utilized by plants for growth. Soil also consists of ores such as Iron, Copper, Gold, and Aluminium which are used by humans daily.

Uses of Soil

  • Soil is mainly used for agricultural practices as the nutrients available in the soil reach the root of the plant and are helpful for the nourishment of the plant.

  • Soil is used in the building process as the soil undergoes soil compaction which increases the density of soil.

  • Soil can be used in preparation of ceramic materials and pottery. The clay soil is used for preparing pots and is used for cooking and drinking utensils. It is highly nutritious to have food from pot materials.

  • Soil is commonly used for treatment of diseases, preparation of ointments, drugs and anti-tumor drugs. It is used for preparation of antibiotics as the microbes available in soil are harmful for bacteria.

  • Beauty products are prepared by using soil. Most commonly it is used in the preparation of blush and foundation. Soil which is rich in clay material is used in facial masks and toothpastes.

Harmful Practices on Air, Water, and Soil

  • Modern farming techniques such as usage of fertilizers and pesticides on soil are harmful for the natural content of soil and are degrading the soil quality. This results in a decrease in the food quality in the long run.

  • Loss of fertile soil is due to the mining and deforestation practices.

  • Passage of chemical waste by the industries into the water system pollutes water which should be utilized for survival and the living organisms inside water.

  • Air pollution is caused due to the release of hazardous chemicals into the natural air and by consuming this polluted air, it is a risk for all the living beings.

  • These harmful practices create an imbalance in nature thus making it risky for living organisms to survive. This also alters the climatic patterns of the atmosphere.

List of Animals living on Land and Water










FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the four types of water?

The four types of water:

  • Surface water: These include streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands.

  • Ground water: This constitutes to around 22% of the water we use.  This is the water which is beneath the earth’s surface filling cracks and other openings in beds of rock and sand.

  • Wastewater: The affected water due to the involvement of human results in wastewater. This can be formed from agricultural activities, urban water use, and sewer inflow and stormwater runoff.

  • Stormwater: The water which is generated when precipitation from rainfall and snowmelt occurs above the land surface without penetrating into the ground is known as stormwater. This runs over surfaces like asphalt containing pollutants like engine oil, fertilizer, and radiator fluid.

2. What is the importance of water?

Water supplies nutrients to the cells in the body and provides oxygen to the brain. It allows the body to absorb and use minerals, vitamins, amino acids, glucose, and other substances. Water flushes out toxins and wastes and also regulates the body temperature.