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Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic Class 6 Notes CBSE History Chapter 5 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 27th Nov 2023
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Exam - Focused Revision Notes for CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 5 - Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic

CBSE Class 6 Civics Chapter 5 is an essential and highly scoring chapter for the students. The students learn in detail about how some of the famous personalities become rulers of the state. Students find it interesting to learn on this topic, and therefore, a solution set for this chapter is beneficial for the students. Several eminent teachers from various schools have come together to prepare the NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Civics Chapter 5. This Class 6 Kingdoms Kings and an Early Republic Notes have covered all the aspects of the chapter and have presented concisely. 

Moreover, it has also included several activities and questions that will be knowledgeable and entertaining for the students. Most importantly, they have prepared the pdf version of the CBSE Notes for Class 6 Chapter 5 Social Science, which the students can download and study at their convenience.

Download CBSE Class 6 History Revision Notes 2023-24 PDF

Also, check CBSE Class 6 History revision notes for All chapters:

Access Class 6 Social Science (History) Chapter 5 Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic

Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic

The history of India is the oldest in the world. Therefore, the kingdoms that prevailed during the golden ages in the subcontinent serve as an excellent archaeological study of our past. CBSE Class 6 Social Science (History) Chapter 5 tells us how the kings or the “raja”s were chosen. From the early days of Ashvamedha to the present day of elections, choosing the leader has come a long way. Gradually, taxes have also come into existence as kingdoms spread. From the reigns of kings, we are now a republic country where the ordinary people choose the one under whose guidance the country will run.

How Were the Rulers Chosen

  • The rulers chosen by the people of India to rule their cities around 3000 years ago were significantly different from the ways the Rajas were decided around 50 years ago.

  • Selecting a city or territory’s ruler or leader by the people of the city, through voting, as we know of today, was not practiced in the Indian subcontinent until about 50 years ago.

  • Around 3000 years ago, the rulers and Rajas were chosen through a series of different rituals.

  • The men were recognized as Rajas by performing immense sacrifices during that period.

  • The Ashvamedha or the horse sacrifice was one such ritual that determined a territory’s Raja or ruler.

  • A horse was freed to wander and was guarded by the Raja’s men.

  • If the horse walked into the kingdoms that other Rajas ruled and stopped the horse, the two Rajas would fight.

  • However, if the other Raja did not stop the horse, then that meant that they had accepted the Raja who’s performing the sacrifice is more powerful. 

  • The rajas were then invited to the sacrifice, which priests conducted.

  • Those priests were further rewarded.

  • The organizing Raja was considered the most powerful and was gifted by others. 

  • The Raja was the central figure in the rituals.

  • The Raja had a separate seat, a throne, or a tiger skin. 

  • The ordinary people or the Vaishya brought gifts to these rituals, whereas the Shudras were excluded.


  • The Rajas who performed enormous sacrifices, such as the Ashvamedha, were recognized as the Rajas of the Janapadas rather than the Jana or people.

  • The word Janapada means the land where the Jana or the people set their foot and are settled down. 

  • Therefore, these Rajas were the ruler of the land of the people, rather than only of the people. 

  • Archaeologists have excavated several settlements in these Janapadas. 

  • Those settlements include the Purana Qila in Delhi, Hastinapur located near Meerut, and Atranjikhera near Etah in Uttar Pradesh.

  • During those ages, it has been found that the people lived in huts and kept cattle, among other animals.

  • The people also grew several crops such as rice, wheat, barley, pulses, sugarcane, sesame, and mustard.

  • The people also made earthen pots, some of which were grey while others were red.

  • Painted Grey Ware is a particular type of pottery found in these areas and was grey with simple geometric patterns and lines designed on them.


  • Mahajanapadas was the name given to the Janapadas, which became more critical in the Indian subcontinent about 2500 years ago.

  • Most of these Mahajanapadas had a special city located inside them which was fortified.

  • Fortification refers to the practice of building massive walls of wood, brick, or stone around a piece of land.

  • Forts were most likely made in these cities because the people of the capital were afraid of attacks from other rival kings.

  • Building forts protected the people of the city from potential threats and attacks. 

  • Fortification enabled the rulers of the land to control the people living inside the fortified area more easily. 

  • The building of fortifications required massive planning and thousands, if not lakhs of bricks to prepare.

  • The fortifications, therefore, needed an enormous amount of labor for its completion and involved the Labour of thousands of men, women, and children. 

  • The newer Rajas also began maintaining armies, with soldiers being paid regularly.

  • The king or Raja maintained the soldiers throughout the year. 

  • Some of the payments were made by punch-marked coins of copper or silver.



  • Taxes were considered the resources with which the rulers or Rajas of the Mahajanapadas maintained their wealthy lifestyle.

  • Since more resources were required for building fortifications and maintaining big armies, the people having land were required to pay taxes to the rulers.

  • These taxes were collected by officials and were collected regularly. 

  • Tariffs on crops were the most important since most people were farmers. 

  • 1/6th of the produced crops was the tax and was called the Bhaga or share. 

  • The Labour of craftspersons was also considered a form of taxation. 

  • Herders used to pay animals and animal products as taxes. 

  • Traded goods were also taxed.

  • Hunters and gatherers paid taxes to the Raja in the form of forest produce. 

Changes in Agriculture

There were two significant changes in agriculture in ancient India. 

  • The first significant change included the usage of ploughshares. A wooden ploughshare was used to turn over heavy, clayey soil easily. More grains could be produced through this.

  • The second major change was the transplantation of paddy. Saplings were grown and planted in fields through this method. Paddy transplantation led to increased production. The slave men and women (dasas and dasis) used to do these works.

A Closer Look- Magadha

  • About two hundred years ago, Magadha was the most crucial Mahajanapada.

  • Numerous rivers like Ganga and the Son flowed through it.

  • The rivers were essential for transportation, water supplies to the cities, and making the land fertile.

  • Some parts of Magadha were also forested, and elephants that lived in the forests were captured and trained for the army.

  • Forests also provided woods for building houses, carts, and chariots by the people.

  • Iron ore mines were also present in the area, which were used to extract iron.

  • Iron was used to make strong tools and weapons by tapping in Magadha.

  • The two very powerful leaders of Magadha were Bimbisara and Ajatashatru, who used all means to conquer other Janapadas.

  • Another essential ruler was Mahapadma Nanda, who extended his control to the northwest.

  • Rajagriha in Bihar was Magadha’s capital for several years. 

  • Pataliputra (present-day Patna) was considered the capital of Magadha in later years.

  • More than 2300 years ago, European emperor Alexander the Great reached the Indian continent to conquer it. Still, his soldiers refused due to the usage of vast armies of foot soldiers, elephants, and chariots by the Indian rulers.

A Closer Look- Vajji

  • Although Magadha became a powerful kingdom in ancient India, Vajji was a different kingdom of importance in the subcontinent. 

  • Vajji’s capital was Vaishali (Bihar) and was ruled by the Gana or Sangha. 

  • In a Gana or a Sangha, there wasn’t anyone ruler. Instead, there were many rulers. 

  • Even when thousands of men ruled a territory together, each was called a Raja

  • They performed rituals together, met in assemblies, and discussed and debated what had to be done.

  • However, women, dasas, or kammakaras were not allowed in the assemblies.

  • Both Gautama Buddha and Mahavira belonged to these ganas or sanghas. 

  • Buddhist books contain the most vivid descriptions of life in the sanghas.

  • The sanghas were tried to be conquered by the rajas of powerful kingdoms in the Indian subcontinent.

  • Despite that, the sanghas lasted for a long time till about 1500 years ago.

  • The last of the ganas were conquered by the Guptas.

Class 6 History Chapter 5 - Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic Notes

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 5 will help students learn and revise about kingdoms, kings and an early republic. The PDF version of the solution set allows students to download it on their laptops or Android devices. They can now study Class 6 Social Science Chapter 5 at their convenience, and the concise notes are beneficial for their revision before the examinations.

Chapter 5 – Social Science

Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 5 involves all the important points related to kingdoms, kings and early republic. Let us look at some of them.

How Men Became Rulers

In this section, the ways men approached to gain superiority over others have been described. The rituals associated with such approaches are discussed. One such ritual was the Ashvamedha or the horse-sacrifice. This section also talked about the responsibilities of the family members of the rulers. Finally, the section ends with how the caste system was formed and how people were categorized according to it.


This section mentioned the hierarchical sections of the rulers. The Janapadas are the lands where the Janas or the rulers set their foot. Different archaeological expeditions found Janapada settlements in Hastinapura located near Meerut, Purana Qila located in Delhi, and Atranjikhera located near Etah. Such excavations revealed that the Janapadas continued to live in huts and had agricultural and animal-rearing occupations. They even made earthen pots like Painted Grey Ware.


Among the Janas, some people became more powerful and started to control an extended stretch called the Mahajanapadas. The Mahajanapadas had their capital city fortified with large, concrete walls. In this section, the students will learn about the people’s lifestyle, the planning required to create such great constructions, and most importantly- the concept of the king of a region. The people used to look up to the kind of justice and protection. Finally, the concepts of kingdoms, kings and an early republic were introduced in this section.


This section considers the taxes that were prevalent during those periods. The reasons for collecting taxes were included. The solution set also considered the types of imposed taxes and the people who have to pay them. Different people have to pay different forms of taxes. For example, farmers have to pay taxes in the form of crops, herders in the form of animals and animal products, and traders in terms of objects they trade. Although the system is similar to the one we have now, the solution set focuses on the uniqueness of such a tax system. It also included the concept of shares or ‘bhagas’.

Changes in Agriculture

In this section, two important changes in agricultural patterns taking place in the times of Mahajanapadas have been elucidated. It introduced the use of iron for plowing and the process of paddy transplantation. The solution set discusses these new techniques and the outcomes of it.

A Closer Look - Magadhas

Amongst the Mahajanapadas, the Magadhas were the most prominent. The rivers’ contribution in Magadha’s rise to prominence has been included in this Class 6 Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Notes. The use of iron for making tools, weapons and chariot have also been focused. The solution set also included the lives and role of important kings of Magadhas with the current day-relevance of such an empire. 

A Closer Look - Vajji

An exception to the concept of Janas is the Gana or sangha, which was prevalent in Vajji. It introduced the concept of many rulers, who performed all the rituals, meetings, and assemblies together.  It can be considered to be primitive of the democratic government that is prevalent today.

Exercise Unit 5 total Solutions: 6 Questions (2 short questions 4 Long questions)

Key features of NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 5

CBSE Notes for Class 6 Chapter 5 Social Science have the following key features:

  • The NCERT solutions are presented concisely, with all the chapter’s salient points being included in it.

  • The flow of the solution set is presented in a story manner, which grabs the students’ attention throughout the chapter.

  • The students can solve the questions provided at the end of the chapter. These questions are designed for exam purposes.

  • There are several activities designed for the students at the end of the chapter. 

  • The students can download the PDF version of the solution set according to their will and convenience.


Vedantu's Kingdoms, Kings, and an Early Republic Class 6 Notes for CBSE History Chapter 5 provide a comprehensive and insightful resource for young learners to understand India's ancient past. The free PDF download serves as an invaluable aid, simplifying complex historical concepts and making learning engaging and accessible. Through these notes, students can explore the rich tapestry of ancient Indian civilizations, the rise of powerful dynasties, and the advent of the early republics. By delving into the lives of legendary kings and the evolution of governance systems, students gain a deeper appreciation of their cultural heritage. Vedantu's efforts in creating these notes contribute significantly to fostering a love for history and encouraging academic excellence.

FAQs on Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic Class 6 Notes CBSE History Chapter 5 (Free PDF Download)

1. What is the need to study about Janas and Janapadas from NCERT solutions?

The CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 5 introduces the concept of Janas and Janapadas to the students. This chapter shows the rise of rulers’ concept and how it changed society in India. The solution set has included all the important points of the chapter. They present these points in the flow of a story so that the students can understand better. Moreover, the solutions also included questions that the students can solve in their preparation for any examination. The students can also perform the activities mentioned at the end of the chapter.

2. Why must you study about Magadhas from NCERT solutions for class 6 social science chapter 5?

The Magadha culture has a prominent place in Indian history and culture. The students need to study these empires. The solution set has included all the important points that are mentioned in the CBSE chapter. The role of the rivers in shaping the Magadha culture has been specifically focused. Moreover, the use of irons is also focused on. Finally, the solution also mentioned the role of important kings of the Magadha empire. The relevance of the Magadha empire in today’s world has been included in the NCERT solution sets.

3. What are the different types of kingdoms that existed in ancient India?

The different types of kingdoms that existed in ancient India were:

  • Mahajanapadas: These were large kingdoms that were ruled by a king.

  • Ganas: These were republics that were ruled by an assembly of elders.

  • Janapadas: These were smaller kingdoms that were ruled by a chief.

4. What was the role of kings in ancient India?

The role of kings in ancient India was to protect their kingdom from external threats, to maintain law and order, and to promote economic growth.

5. What were the important trade routes in ancient India?

The important trade routes in ancient India were:

  • The Silk Route: This route connected China with the Mediterranean Sea.

  • The Spice Route: This route connected India with the Middle East and Europe.

  • The Gangetic Route: This route connected the Ganges River Valley with other parts of India.

The early republic of Magadha made several contributions to ancient India, including:

  • The development of a strong military.

  • The promotion of trade and commerce.

  • The construction of large cities.

  • The development of a system of writing.

7. What are the sources of information about ancient India?

The sources of information about ancient India include:

  • The Vedas: These are the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.

  • The Puranas: These are a collection of myths and legends about Hindu gods and goddesses.

  • The Epics: These are two long poems, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.

  • The Arthashastra: This is a treatise on statecraft written by Kautilya.

  • The Ashokan Inscriptions: These are a series of inscriptions written by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka.