CBSE Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes - Globe Latitudes and Longitudes

Globe Latitudes and Longitudes Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 2 - PDF Download

Globes are the spherical models of the earth. The purpose of the globes is pretty much similar to the maps. The model globe which is made for the earth is simply known as the terrestrial globe. The model globe which is used for the celestial sphere is known as the celestial globe. You can find all the answers to globes in the Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 notes.

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Access Class 6 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 02 - Globe Latitudes and Longitudes Notes part-1

Access Class 6 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 02 - Globe Latitudes and Longitudes Notes

1. The globe that we see is a representation of the earth. The needle passes through the balloon in an oblique manner, called its axis. 

2. An imaginary line passing through the earth divides the earth into equal parts. This line is called Equator. 

3. All the parallel circles from the equator to the poles are known as latitudes. Latitude is also measured in degrees. 

4. When we move away from the equator, the size of the line of latitude decreases. The four important parallel lines of latitude are: 

a. Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N of equator) 

b. Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 °S of equator) 

c. Arctic Circle (66.3°N) 

d.  Antarctic Circle (66.3°S) 

6. Hot Zone of the Earth i.e. Torrid Zone Receives Maximum heat.

7. The temperature is found moderate in temperate regions. For example: China, America, Northern India etc.

8. The climate in the frigid zone is cold because the sun's rays are always inclined. 


Longitude 

i. The reference line from North Pole to South Pole is called the longitude meridian. 

ii. The distance between them is measured by "Degree of longitude". 

iii. All meridians have the same longitude. 

iv. The meridian which passes through Greenwich, also where the Royal Observatory is located, is called the prime meridian. 

v. The value of the prime meridian is 0° longitude, from which we calculate east longitude 180° and west longitude 180°. 

vi. The prime meridian is responsible for dividing the earth into two equal parts, the eastern hemisphere and the western hemisphere. 

vii. Lines of 180 ° east longitude and 180 ° west longitude are on the same line. 

viii. If we know the latitude and longitude of the earth, we can locate any point on the earth. 


Longitude and Time 

i. As the Earth rotates from west to east,  places located in the east of Greenwich will lead to Greenwich, and places located in the west will lag behind Greenwich. 

ii. The Earth rotates 360 ° in approximately 24 hours. 

iii. In any place, when the sun is highest in the sky, the watch can be set at 12 o'clock. 

iv. Standard Time :- The local time varies from place to place, so it is necessary to use the local time of a certain central meridian in a certain country as the standard time. 

v. 82.5°E is regarded as the standard meridian of India. The local time on this meridian is called Indian Standard Time (IST). 

vi India, located at 82°30`E east of Greenwich, 5 hours and 30 minutes earlier than Greenwich Mean Time. 

vii. Some countries have a large vertical extension, which is why they use more than one standard time. 

viii. The Globe is a real model of the earth, with a small appearance. A needle called a shaft passes through the balloon at an angle. 

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ix. The axis of the earth passes through two extreme points: called the poles (North Pole and South Pole). This axis is shown in the shape of a needle on the earth.

x. The circle that passes through the center of the Earth and is perpendicular to the axis of the Earth is called the equator. It divides the earth into two hemispheres, the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere. We can imagine more circles parallel to the equator, with their centers on the axis and with different radii. These circles are referred to as lines of latitude. 

xi. Parallel lines are determined by degrees. The equator represents zero degrees of latitude. The latitude of the northern hemisphere is designated as north (° N), p. For example, 10°N, 20°N, and so on until 90°N (this is the North Pole). Similarly, the latitude of the southern hemisphere is designated south latitude (°S), and 90°S is the South Pole. 

xii. The circle passing through Greenwich, England, perpendicular to the equator and parallel to the axis, is called the prime meridian. The prime meridian is responsible for dividing the earth into two hemispheres, one the eastern hemisphere and the other western hemisphere. The equator and the prime meridian divides the earth into four equal parts. Imagine more circles parallel to the prime meridian, with their centers at the center of the earth and equal radii. These circles are known as longitudes. 

xiii. The length is determined with the help of degrees. The prime meridian represents degrees zero longitude. The longitude of the eastern hemisphere is designated as the east longitude (° E), p. For example, 10°E, 20°E, and so on until 180°. The situation in the Western Hemisphere is similar. Degrees are divided into minutes, and minutes are divided into seconds. Note that the symbol for one minute is an apostrophe (`), and the second is a double apostrophe ("). 60 feet (60 minutes) constitute one degree and 60 inches (60 seconds) constitute one minute. So 30` means half a degree and 40 "means two thirds of a minute. 

xiv. Two points on earth can be at the same latitude, but still far apart. Also, two distant points can be the same longitude. But only one point is on a specific latitude and longitude pair. So latitude and longitude help locate a point on the earth. 

xv. The Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle are special latitudes present in the northern hemisphere. They are located at 23 1/2 ° N and 6612 ° N, respectively. 

xvi. The Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle are special latitudes present in the southern hemisphere. They are located at 23 12 ° S and 66 12 ° S, respectively. 

xvii. The area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn receives the most heat from the Sun. This area is referred to as the hot zone. 

xviii. The temperature is moderate in the areas between the Aarti Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Northern Hemisphere, and between the Antarctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn. These regions are temperate regions.


What is Latitude?

The latitude is a proper measurement on the map or a proper globe of any location which is North or the South of the Equator. The latitude can be measured with the help of a line which is imaginary and is known as the Prime Meridian. The latitude can be measured in any particular angle that ranges between 0° at the Equator to 90° at the poles Find more details about latitude in globe latitudes and longitudes Class 6 notes.


What is Longitude?

The longitude can be defined as the measurement of any particular location which is a situation to the east or the west of the Prime Meridian, that too, at Greenwich. Students will easily be able to understand these topics with the Globe latitudes and longitudes Class 6 PPT.


An Overview of Globes, Longitude, and Latitude

Globes can be of different sizes and there are many types too. You have the small globes that fit in a pocket and then there are larger ones. One of the main things about the globe is that it can easily be rotated as there is no fixed point to it. There are countries, oceans, and continents shown in the globe and their right size as well. The globe has a needle fixed through it in a titled fashion that we know is the axis.

The two extreme points through which this needle will pass is known as the two different poles, North and South. Another important line passes through the globe and it divides it into two different parts, the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere. This particular line is known as the equator. According to the NCERT Geography Class 6 Chapter 2 notes, the equator is basically just the imaginary line which is circular and can be used for locating different places on the globe. Every single one of the circles that run parallel to the equator can be called the parallels of latitudes. These are measured properly in degrees.

The equator is a representation of the zero degrees latitude. We all know that the distance of poles from the equator is about 1/4th of the entire circle of the earth. Hence, the degree measured would also be one-fourth of the entire rotation which is three hundred sixty degrees, also 90°. So, about 90 degrees to the North latitude will denote the North Pole and 90 degrees to the South would denote the South pole. Students can refer to the Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 notes for more information.


The Parallels of Latitude

There are four different and very important parallels of latitudes that students need to know about. It is all described in the chapter Globe Latitudes and longitudes Class 6 notes.

1. Tropic of Cancer (23½° N) is located in the Northern Hemisphere.

2. Tropic of Capricorn (23½° S) which is located in the Southern Hemisphere.

3. The Arctic Circle is situated at 66½° north of the equator.

4. The Antarctic Circle is situated at 66½° south of the equator.


Different Heat Zones Located In the Earth

There are different types of heat zones that are located on Earth. Students can know about it with the Globe Latitudes and longitudes Class 6 PPT.

1. Torrid Zones: The Torrid Zone is the area which gets maximum heat since the sun at its Mid-day is right over the head and that too at least once every single year. This happens on all the latitudes which are situated between the Tropic of Capricorn and Tropic of Cancer.

2. Temperate Zones: The Temperate Zone has some sort of moderate temperature. This happens when the sun in the midday doesn’t shine overhead on any specific latitude which is situated beyond the Tropic of Cancer as well as the Tropic of Capricorn. So, the areas which are bounded by these parallel latitudes in the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere tend to have some moderate type of climate.

3. Frigid Zones: Now these are the zones or areas that lie between the North Pole and the Arctic Circle which is present in the Northern Hemisphere and the South Pole and the Antarctic Circle which is present in the Southern Hemisphere. The reason for these zones being frigid is that the sun doesn’t rise much and that too above the horizon in these regions. So, the rays of the sun in these areas tend to always be in a slanting position. The heat produced is much lesser and these areas tend to be a lot colder than expected.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Correct Shape of our Earth?

Ans: The correct shape of our earth is like geoid-earth. In simpler words, it is shaped like an orange.

2. What Exactly can be Defined as a Globe?

Ans: A 3-dimensional model depicting the earth is known as the globe.

3. Mention the Latitudinal Value of the Tropic of Cancer?

Ans: The latitudinal value of the Tropic of Cancer is 23 ½o North.

4. What are latitudes and longitudes Class 6?

Ans: Latitude refers to the angles that start from Zero degrees at the equator to 90 degrees at the north or south pole. Longitudes refer to the east and west point on the earth’s surface. Students should read this chapter in detail to get a better and detailed understanding of the concepts. They should also refer to Vedantu’s Revision Notes Chapter 2 Class 6 Geography as these notes will help them retain the important points which will thereby help them score better grades in the exam.

5. What is a Globe Class 6 CBSE?

Ans: A globe is a true and exact model of the planet earth in miniature form. The countries, continents and oceans are presented in their exact shapes on the globe. There are different types of globes available for study. These include the big ones, that are not easy to carry around and are usually used by the teachers in the schools or the universities, to convey the teachings to the students. There are also small globes or pocket globes that can be carried around easily and can be accessed at any given time. It is not fixed and can be spun around for easy access.

6. Why do we have standard time?

Ans: The local times of different countries are different because of their location on the meridians. For instance, in India, there is a difference of One hour and 45 minutes concerning the local times of Dwarka in Gujarat and Dibrugarh in Assam. Therefore, it becomes a necessity to have a standard time by adopting the local time of certain meridians. Longitude 82 ½ degree E is taken as the standard meridian of India, and thus the standard time at this particular meridian is taken to be the standard time for the country, known as the Indian Standard Time (IST).

7. Is Chapter 2 of Class 6 Social Studies easy?

Ans: If you are thorough with the concepts, any question asked in the examination becomes easier. Thus, you must practice all the topics and concepts of Chapter 2 without leaving anything behind to score well in your exams. You should highlight the important sections in the chapter and revise them regularly to retain them. Apart from this, you should also refer to Vedantu’s Revision Notes Chapter 2 Class 6 Geography to have a strong grip on the concepts. You must find your weak spots and work extra hard on them. Working on these suggestions will make Chapter 2 of Class 6 Social Studies easy for you.

8. Why is it important to refer to the Revision Notes?

Ans: Vedantu’s Revision Notes Chapter 2 Class 6 Geography is the holy grail for the CBSE students. If you are thorough with these notes, you will surely achieve good grades in your exam. These revision notes are designed by experts at Vedantu based on the requirements of the students. These revision notes can help you prepare for your Class 6 Social Science exam. The concepts are mentioned in brief and simple language, making it easier for students to revise the concepts at the last minute. These notes are available at free of cost on the Vedantu app and on the Vedantu website.

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