Brain Drain is defined as emigration or migration of individuals of talents and skilled from developing or under-developed countries to developed ones. It means impoverishment of intellectuals, professionals, and technical resources of one country and enriching another. It is also known as mass departure of skillful resources from a country. It brings a potential economic decline in the nation. Brain Drain subjects to a vital threat before a country. This migration results in a great loss to the countries where they are born and educated. In fact higher education is one of the important reasons for permanent emigration.
The term ‘Brain Drain’ was first used by the United Kingdom in 1960 when the skilled workforce started emigrating from the developing or under-developed countries to the developed countries (first world countries). It refers to the situation when highly qualified and trained people leave his/her own country to permanently settle down in other developed countries. It is also known as human capital flight. With the beginning of globalization, ideas, opinions, skills in the form of labor started being exchanged between the nations.
This concept of Brain Drain is a matter of serious concern for any nation because it takes off individuals from their homeland to other foreign land. Often people go abroad to pursue higher education and settle there because of better work and attractive pay packages. Talented, skilled and experienced professionals migrate to other countries for better career prospects. They get attracted by better standards of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in the developed countries which lead to migration from less developed countries.
The factors for the rise of Brain Drain are also called Push and Pull factors. The Push factors are the factors connected to the country of origin and Pull factors are the factors connected with the country of destination.
The basic facility is not congenial for research and education in the institutions.
Under-employment for thousands of engineering graduates, scientific and technical manpower waiting for respective assignments.
Poor quality of living.
Limited access to health care facility.
Less economic opportunity.
Better Economic prospects.
Better Research facilities.
Relative Political Stability.
Modern Education System and better chance of advancement.
Geographical Brain Drain: This refers to the emigration of highly skilled professionals to other developing countries in search of better paying jobs. It creates a negative impact on the economic development of the homeland.
Organizational Brain Drain: This refers to the departure of experienced and talented individuals from one organization to another. This exodus can be very harmful to the organizations.
Industrial Brain Drain: This refers to the movement of skilled and trained workers from one industry to another for better salary. This causes shortage of experienced workers in the industry from where they depart.
Overall, Brain Drain is a widespread phenomenon these days. Many developing and under-developed countries are suffering from the loss of talents and skilled professionals like India, Africa and Arab countries. The governments and private firms should take some strict measures to control this by aiming towards a better and friendlier atmosphere. They should provide better working conditions, improve infrastructure in education institutions, create more employment opportunities, increase salaries and develop rural places. Making laws and strictly implementing them should check discrimination and bias at work places. Incentives should be given to youngsters from going abroad in search of work. These action plans can solve the problem of Brain Drain.
Q1. What is Brain Drain?
Ans. Brain Drain is the mass departure of talented and skilled individuals from a developing or under-developed country to developing country.
Q2. What are Push Factors?
Ans. Push Factors are factors that associated with the country of origin.
Q3. What is Organizational Brain Drain?
Ans. Organizational Brain Drain refers to the departure of experienced and talented individuals from one organization to another.
Q4. How to Prevent Brain Drain?
Ans. To prevent Brain Drain, the governments of developing and under-developed should take stern measures of providing better working conditions, creating more employment opportunities, stopping discrimination and bias among employees and development of rural places.