Parasitic Symbiosis

Symbiosis in Biology

Parasitic symbiosis may be a close and long-term symbiotic interaction between two organisms, where one lives within the body of the host, causing it some harm. Symbiosis definition in biology describes that it is the symbiosis of any living arrangements between two different species, including commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism. Both positive and harmful associations included; such members are called symbionts.

What is The Meaning of Symbiosis?

It is an interaction or close living relationship between organisms from different species. Usually, it benefits one or both of the individuals. Symbiosis is also 'obligate,' within which case the connection between the 2 species is so interdependent.  Each of the organisms is unable to survive without the opposite, during which the 2 species engage symbiotic partnership through choice and might survive individually. They are often evolved over an extended period of time. On the other hand, facultative symbiosis could also be more modern, behavioural adaptations; given time, facultative symbiosis may evolve into obligate symbiosis.

Examples of Symbiosis

There are several types of symbiosis to contemplate, which are as follows:

  • Commensalism

Commensalism may be a style of relationship where one among the organisms benefits greatly from the symbiosis. The opposite is not helped but isn't harmed or damaged from the connection. In other words, this is often a one-sided symbiotic relationship.

Example: The connection between cattle egrets and cattle.

Example: A decapod crustacean taking on residence in an empty seashell.

  • Parasitism

In parasitism, one organism benefits from the link but at the expense of the opposite. The plant may live inside the other's body or on its surface. In a number of these parasitic relationships, the host dies, and in others, the host must remain alive.

Example: Fleas and mosquitoes take advantage of blood from other organisms.

Example: Aphids

  • Mutualism

Mutualism could be a close relationship where both parties benefit. Both species will like the link, and plenty of those relationships are long-lasting.

Example: Cleaning symbiosis

Example: The connection between goby fish and shrimp.

  • Endosymbiosis and Ectosymbiosis

Endosymbiosis is one species living inside another one.

Example: Lice that take advantage of the skin, blood, or oil secretions of the host.

What is Parasitism?

Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship or a long-term relationship between two species. Here one member, the parasite, gains benefits that come at the expense of the host member. The word parasite comes from the Latin variety of the Greek word, meaning "one who eats at the table of another."

Types of Parasitism

There are many varieties of parasitism, and parasites can belong to multiple classifications that support their size, characteristics, and relationship with the host.

  • Obligate Parasitism

Obligate parasites are entirely obsessed with the host to complete their life cycle. It can be found in many alternative sorts of organisms, like plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Head lice are obligate parasites; if off from the human scalp, they'll soon die.

  • Facultative Parasitism

Facultative parasites don't depend upon the host to complete their life cycle; they'll survive without the host, and only sometimes perform parasitic activities. Individual plants, fungi, animals, and microbes are often facultative parasites. A selected example is the nematode species Strongyloides stercoralis. 

  • Ectoparasites, Endoparasites, and Mycoparasitism

Ectoparasites are parasites that carry on the skin of the host's body, like lice and ticks. Endoparasites, like nematodes and hookworms, live inside the host. Meso Parasites enter the host's external openings, like the external organ or the cloaca.

  • Macroparasitism Versus Micro Parasitism

Macroparasites are parasites that are large enough to be seen with the oculus. Microparasites are too small and can be seen under a microscope. They're generally unicellular, like protozoa.

  • Necrotrophic Versus Biotrophic

Necrotrophic parasites, also called parasitoids, mostly eat a part of the host organism's tissue until it dies from the loss of muscle or nutrient loss. Biotrophic parasites don't do severe enough damage to kill their host; they have to stay the host alive because they can't survive during a dead one.

  • Monogenic Versus Digenetic

Monogenic parasites complete their life cycle in barely one individual host. Digenetic pests need quite one host to finish their life cycle. Plasmodium, the protozoa that carries malaria, is digenetic. It must be a parasite of both people and mosquitos and complete the cycle.

  • Epi Parasitism

An epiparasite could be a parasite that parasitizes another organism that's also a parasite. Epiparasites also are called hyperparasites or secondary parasites. One example would be a protozoan living during a flea that's living on a dog.

  • Social Parasitism

Social parasites benefit from social insects like ants, bees, and termites. They will use mimicry to invade the hive. Some bumble bees invade the colonies of other species of bees, making that species raise the parasite's young.

  • Brood Parasitism

Brood parasitism involves the raising of the young. Bird species that practice brood parasitism, including cowbirds and cuckoos, lay their eggs in another species' nest rather than building their nests. It is often a sort of dependency because the species which lay their eggs in other nests gain benefits while the different species are harmed.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Give some parasitic animals' examples.

  • In Humans

Over 100 different kinds of organisms can parasitize humans, including fungi, leeches, lice, ticks, mites, tapeworms, protozoa, viruses, and helminths. Helminths are worms that will live inside the intestines and may reach meters long. 

  • In Insects

Entomophilous parasites are insects that parasitize other insects. Usually, these parasites attack larva, or young insects. Some insects deposit their eggs within the body of another insect species' caterpillar; when the eggs hatch, the parasitic young kill and eat the worm, gaining nutrients from it.

  • In Fish

Some parasites, like copepods, nematodes, and leeches, attach to the fish's gills and live there. Cymothoa exigua is an isopod (another form of small crustacean) that parasitizes fish.

2. Give some of the most common symbiotic plant examples?

Symbiotic plants, or the method of symbiosis, is when two plants live closely together harmonic of 1 kind or another. There are four forms of symbiosis - mutualism, parasitism, commensalism, and endosymbiosis/ectosymbiosis. The word 'symbiosis' comes from the Greek words for 'with' and 'living.' They describe a relationship between two species or organisms, which will often be beneficial for both parties. Ex. Foxgloves, Marigolds, Rosemary, Orange Nasturtium, Lavender, Tomatoes.