Introduction to What is Moet
MOET full form is Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer. It is a reproductive method used on animals in which multiple eggs are fertilized and later on the embryo is obtained non-surgically after the 7th day of mating. It is a traditional method that is mostly practiced in cattle for the production of the embryo. Embryo transfer (ET) is a beneficial technique for improving the reproductive potential of a group of animals. But with the help of MOET, more than one offspring can be produced from the genetically fit cows. This is possible due to the utilization of the Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) procedure.
Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer
All-female cattle have the capacity to produce more eggs than they generally produce or need over their lifespan. In the process of MOET, ovaries of cycling cattle are caused to release more eggs by stimulating it using hormones mainly the Follicle Stimulating Hormones (FSH) to induce multiple ovulations. Cattles are artificially inseminated (mated) and multiple eggs are fertilized inside the reproductive tract of the cattle. Usually, after 7 days of mating, the embryos are collected without any surgery. These embryos are then transported into the recipients i.e the surrogate mothers. Only specific cattle who are at a similar stage of their cycle to that of the mother cattle and also have not been mated can be a surrogate mother. Most of the embryos are accepted by the surrogate mother. As a result, normal pregnancy occurs. However, embryos can be frozen, to transfer them as fresh embryos, or put them for sale. It is considered an excellent technique for improving the genetic capability of the best animals.
The Procedure of MOET Technique of Animal Breeding
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MOET technique can be divided into the following four areas:-
The donor and recipient cows must have their heats synchronized. Donors require treatment with (follicle-stimulating hormone) and prostaglandin. These are given by the injections only in the muscles i.e in the neck or rump, either two or four times a day. CIDRs need to be removed and semen should be organized (and an AI technician).
The cattle need to feed well with proper nutrients prior to and after calving as they might require preferential management.
They should be provided with a sufficient interval of minimum 6 weeks before starting with the next program i.e after they have completed their cycle.
Have done routine vet checkups to assure that they are clean
Heat Detection: When the cattle are being artificially inseminated, heats need to be accurately recorded. This is necessary as its aid helps in a much better manner.
Donors and recipients on the collection day need to be handy to the yards i.e they are placed at the covered and secured place. In order to relax the donor cattle's bowel, she is provided with an epidural injection. Her rear end is washed and sterilized properly to avoid any kind of infection. With their left hand wearing gloves in the cow’s rectum, the veterinary doctor locates a catheter through the cervix into the vagina and one horn (upper one) of the uterus.
On the catheter, an inflatable cuff is filled with air. This is done to hold the catheter in one place and then the fluid is run into the uterine horn. Through the catheter and a very fine filter as it catches the embryo, the fluid is run back as soon as the horn is filled with it. Now, this process is repeated several times and the catheter is transported to the other horn of the uterus where the process is again repeated. Cattle are released after collection to go back to her paddock. The cattle then need to be given a Prostaglandin injection after 3 days for proper cycling.
The filter is rinsed and then when placed under the microscope, it is observed for the embryos. The embryos observed are then graded, counted, and washed. The embryos are then frozen for 2 hours and slowly cooled to -30. Then it is plunged in liquid nitrogen at -190℃ and preserved for later use. It can also be disseminated into the recipients by using transfer guns.
Recipient cattle are clasped in head bail, injected with an epidural, and washed. The ovaries are observed to check whether they successfully cycled or not. The embryo is then inserted into the uterus by using a transfer gun.
1.What are the Advantages of MOET?
It helps to produce more progeny of the animals by increasing their reproductive rate.
There is no requirement for any kind of surgery.
The whole technique can be handily carried out on the farm areas.
For later or future usage, these embryos can be stored and preserved by freezing them in the laboratory.
In the banks, the embryos can also be cryopreserved for future use.
Herd size can be increased within a short period of time.
Higher milk yielding cattle can be obtained using this program.
To enhance the possibilities of profitable production of hybrids.
2. Name the Drugs that are Used in MOET? What are the Facilities Provided to the Animals Involved in the Program?
MOET involves the use of the following drugs:
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): To stimulate the ovaries in order to release more than one egg.
Other drugs used are PMSG (Example, pregnecol), Progesterone (Example, CIDRs), Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (Example, Receptacle), and Prostaglandin (Example, Estroplan or Estrumate injection)
To synchronize the animals, these hormones are utilized so that they cycle at the exact and correct time.
Basic yards with the covered race for the security of the cattle. A warm and clean room with power is provided along with a bench for embryology.