What is Histology?

Histology is a branch of biology concerned with the structure and content of plant and animal tissues in relation to their specific functions. Despite the fact that the terms histology and microscopic anatomy are sometimes used interchangeably, the two fields of study are distinct. The primary purpose of histology is to determine how tissues are organized at all levels of structure, from cells to intercellular substances to organs. Microscopic anatomy, on the other hand, is concerned with the arrangement of tissues in bigger entities such as organs and organ systems (e.g., circulatory and reproductive systems).

 

Histologists primarily examine tissue that has been removed from a living body; these tissues are cut into extremely thin, almost translucent slices using special cutting equipment known as a microtome. These so-called thin sections can then be dyed with various dyes to increase the contrast between their various cellular components, making them easier to resolve using an optical microscope. The electron microscope can disclose details of tissue organization that are beyond the resolving capacity of optical microscopes. Tissues can also be kept alive after they have been removed from the body if they are placed in the appropriate culture medium.

 

Multiple Choice Questions

Q1. Embryo is present by true vasculature is absent in phylum:

A. Cyanophyta

B. Tracheophyta

C. Bryophyta

D. Chlorophyta

Answer: (C) Bryophyta

 

Explanation: Bryophytes are the earliest plants, and they are among the most basic of all terrestrial plants. The majority of representatives do not have a complicated tissue arrangement. Because they are so little, they rely on diffusion to transport water in and out of the plant. Vegetative reproduction or sexual reproduction, in which male and female gamete fertilize to generate zygote, is used. Through mitotic cell division, the zygote later creates an embryonic sporophyte.

 

Q2. The unique features of bryophytes compared to other green plant groups is that:

A. They produce spores.

B. They have vascular tissue.

C. They lack roots.

D. Their sporophytes are attached to gametophytes.

Answer: D)Their sporophytes are attached to gametophytes.

 

Explanation: The gametophyte is the Bryophytes leafy thallus, which is a haploid and produces gametes by mitosis. The spermatozoids are biflagellate and swim through a thin layer of wetness on the surface of the thallus to reach the eggs, which are kept inside but exposed to the outside via pores. The spermatozoids are drawn to the egg's chemicals, and only one can fertilize each egg. A diploid zygote is produced as a result of fertilization, which matures into a diploid plant that produces spores via meiosis and is known as a sporophyte. The sporophyte remains attached to the parent gametophyte and is regarded as 'parasitic' on it since it lacks chlorophyll and relies on the gametophyte for much of its sustenance. 

 

Q3. In bryophytes diploid number of chromosomes occur in:

A. Gametes

B. Spores

C. Spore mother cell

D. Nuclei of gametes

Answer: C) Spores mother cell

 

Explanation: The sporogonium is where the spore mother cells are made. These are diploid (2n) and represent the sporophyte generation's last stage. The spore mother cells undergo reduction division (meiosis), resulting in the formation of tetrads of haploid (n) spores. The spores mark the start of the gametophyte generation.

 

Q4. The plant used as an alternative to cotton:

A. <i>Sphagnum</i>

B. <i>Funaria</i>

C. <i>Riccia</i>

D. <i>Andria</i>

Answer:  A)  <i>Sphagnum</i>

 

Explanation: <i>Sphagnum</i>, which is commonly found in bogs, has the ability to absorb a considerable amount of water, up to 18 times its weight. As a result, gardeners frequently utilize it to keep seedlings and cut plant parts moist during transit and propagation. It was also utilized in the past to replace absorbent cotton.

 

Q5. The antherozoids of bryophytes possess:

1. 2 - Flagella

2. 1 - Flagella

3. Multi Flagella

4. No Flagella

Answer: A) 2- Flagella

 

Explanation: Because the Antherozoids of Bryophytes have two flagella, they are biflagellated and have a long coiled body. Spermatozoids are another name for antherozoids. Bryophytes, fungi, algae, pteridophytes, and some gymnosperms produce male gametes in their antheridia.

 

Q6. Which of the following is bryophytes possess?

A. <i>Funaria</i>

B. <i>Volvox</i>

C.<i>Chlorella</i>

D. <i>Spirulina</i>

Answer:( A) <i>Funaria</i>

 

Explanation: Common moss, green moss, and cord moss are all names for <i>Funaria</i>. <i>Funaria's</i> main plant body is a gametophyte, which comes in two varieties.

(1) Juvenile form (creeping protonema).

(2) Adult form (leafy gametophyte).

 

Filamentous setae, a gibbous obtusely pyriform capsule, and a double peristome with 16 teeth are all characteristics. The phylum Algae includes <i>Chlorella</i>, <i>Volvox</i>, and <i>Spirulina</i> (Thallophyta).

 

Q7. The group of Bryophyta includes:

A. Liverworts and fern

B. Liverworts and club moss

C. Moss and ferns

D. Liverworts and moss

Answer: Liverworts and moss

 

Explanation: Bryophytes are tiny, nonvascular plants that have been around for over 500 million years. Bryophytes were most likely the first terrestrial plants. The gametophyte phase dominates the life cycle of bryophytes, which lack vascular tissue. The plants' size is limited by the lack of conducting cells, which keeps them under 5 inches tall. Bryophytes don't have roots; instead, they have rhizoids, which are root-like structures. Hornworts, liverworts, and mosses are examples of bryophytes. 

 

Q8. A leafy non-vascular plant with parasitic sporophytic generation should properly be classified in:

A. Thallophyta

B. Bryophyta

C. Pteridophyta

D. Spermatophyta

Answer: Bryophyta

 

Explanation: Vascular plants include pteridophytes and spermatophytes. Thallophytes with generational alternation have separate gametophytes and sporophytes. Bryophytes are nonvascular plants having a less developed sporophyte that relies on gametophytic generation for reproduction.

 

Q9. Bryophyta includes:

A. Mosses

B. Club mosses

C. Spike mosses

D. All of the above

Answer: (A)Mosses

 

Explanation: They belong to the Lycopodiaceae family and are flowerless and seedless. Herbaceous and vascular plants are both included in the Lycopodiaceae family. Spike mosses, or <i>Selaginella</i>, are the only vascular plant genus in the Selaginellaceae family. So, 'Mosses' is the correct answer.

 

Q10. A leafy gametophyte plant with multicellular rhizoids and sporophytes differentiated in the foot, seta, and capsule should belong to:

A. Psilopsida

B. Hepaticopsida

C. Bryopsida

D. Lycopsida

Answer:(C) Bryopsida

 

Explanation: Bryophytes do not have genuine leaves, stems, or roots, but they do have a comparable structure. They have rhizoid-like hair that anchors them to the ground. Thallus takes water and minerals directly from the ground or the atmosphere in the lack of roots. As a result, they can only survive in damp environments. Bryopsida is the correct choice from the list above. Bryophytes belonging to the Hepatocopsida family have a dorsoventrally flattened lobed plant body with unicellular rhizoids. The other two classes belong to the Pteridophyta division.

 

Q11. Jacket fewer archegonia occur in:

A.<i>Riccia</i>

B. <i>Funaria</i>

C. <i>Sphagnum</i>

D. <i>Anthoceros</i>

Answer:(D) <i>Anthoceros</i>

 

Explanation: Anthocerotae is a Bryophyta class. They have a thallus plant body with unicellular rhizoids that are dorsiventral. The sporophyte is a horn-shaped sporophyte with a lot of green tissues that largely rely on the gametophyte. Archegonia are present in <i>Anthoceros</i> and are sunken in the thallus. The archegonium is not covered by jacket cells. The archegonium is protected by the thallus's vegetative cells. Cover cells, also known as lid cells, are situated at the archegonia's tip. 

 

Q12. Bryophytes differ from thallophytes in having:

A. Embryo

B. Rhizoids

C. Sterile jacket around sex organs.

D. All the above

Answer:(D) All the above

 

Explanation: Thallophytes are primitive plants with a lack of body structure differentiation. In thallophyta, there are no bare embryos. The sex organs are unicellular, but when they become multicellular, each cell produces a gamete. Bryophytes have a well-differentiated plant body containing rhizoids, which are root-like structures. The sex organs are multicellular and are encased in a sterile cell jacket.

 

Q13. Spores do not form protonema but directly grow into flat branching thallus in:

A. Liverworts

B. Mosses

C. Ferns

D. Gymnosperms

Answer: Liverworts

 

Explanation: In liverworts, spores do not form protonema and instead develop into a flat branching thallus.

 

Q14. In bryophytes, simplest sporophyte occur in:

A. <i>Riccia</i>

B. <i>Marchantia</i>

C. <i>Sphagnum</i>

D. <i>Funaria</i>

Answer: <i>Riccia</i>

 

Explanation: <i>Riccia</i> is a member of the liverwort family. They feature a flattened lobed plant body with unicellular rhizoids on the dorsiventral side. <i>Riccia's</i> mature sporophyte is a spherical capsule with no foot or set that is lodged within the gametophytic plant. The mature haploid spores are found in the sporophyte. The spores are released when the ventral wall and surrounding gametophytic tissue disintegrate.

 

Q15. A saprophytic bryophyte found in the Himalayas is:

A. <i>Sphagnum</i>

B. <i>Marchantia</i>

C. <i>Funaria</i>

D. <i>Buxbaumia</i>

Answer: <i>Buxbaumia

 

Explanation: <i>Buxbaumia</i> is a moss, not a blooming plant, however, it can be compared to a plant that has visible blooms in the spring and no visible parts (leaves, branches, roots) the rest of the year for the sake of understanding. Udae, Shrivastava, and Kumar were the first to record the genus Buxbaumia as a new species from India, in the western Himalayas.

 

Q16. Which of the following is an example of moss?

A. <i>Funaria</i>

B. <i>Riccia</i>

C. <i>Anthoceros</i>

D. <i>Pellia</i>

Answer: <i>Funaria</i>

 

Explanation: <i>Funaria</i> is a moss genus with leaves that are often packed near the tips of slender stems. The leaves are oval and tongue-shaped. The capsule has a pyriform shape. The green, pear-shaped capsules are carried on long, usually curved setae and are originally green and pear-shaped, turning yellowish to orange-brown when ripe. <i>Riccia</i> and <i>Pellia</i> are members of the Hepaticae family. <i>Anthoceros</i> are members of the Anthocerotae family.

 

Q17. Which structure produces the gamete-bearing plant of moss?

A. Spore

B. Bud

C. Protonema

D. Zygote

Answer: Bud

 

Explanation: The gamete-bearing plant of moss is Bud. 

 

Q18. Vascular cytoplasm or seedless vascular plants belongs to:

A. Bryophyta

B. Pteridophyta

C. Thallophyta

D. Spermatophyta

Answer: Pteridophyta

 

Explanation: Pteridophytes include vascular cryptogams and seedless vascular plants. As a result, option B is the proper response. Pteridophytes, to be precise. The life-cycle of seedless vascular plants is alternated by a diploid sporophyte with a haploid gametophyte.

 

Q19. Seed habit first established in:

A. Pteridophyta

B. Gymnosperm

C. Angiosperms

D. None of the above

Answer: Gymnosperm

 

Explanation: Gymnosperms were the first to develop a seed habit. The development of the seed habit, which can be seen in modern gymnosperms (as well as angiosperms), eliminated the need for water during sexual reproduction. On the sporophylls of seed plants, two types of sporangia form. Megasporangium (ovule) and microsporangium are the two types of the sporangium. The seed is formed when the ovule is fertilized.

 

Q20. Roots first originated in:

A. Algae

B. Fungi

C. Bryophyta

D. Pteridophyta

Answer: Pteridophyta

 

Explanation: The body is clearly split into genuine roots, stems, and leaves in this way. As a result of the foregoing, we can deduce that the roots originated in the Pteridophyta. 

 

Q21. The main plant body of pteridophytes is:

A. Sporophyte

B. Gametophytes

C. Haploid

D. None of these

Answer: Sporophytes

 

Explanation: Because it is a diploid multicellular stage that differentiates into genuine root, stem, and leaves, the sporophyte is the major plant body of the pteridophyte.

 

Q22. Cryptogamic plants are:

A. Seedless

B.Embryoless

C. Leafless

D. Rootless

Answer: Rootless

 

Explanation: Cryptogams are seedless, flowerless plants. Algae, mosses, and ferns are examples of basic plants. Flowers, fruits, and seeds are not produced by them. Cryptogams are regarded as low-growing plants.

 

Q23. Cambium is absent in:

A. Pteridophytes

B. Gymnosperms

C. Angiosperms

D. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms

Answer: Pteridophytes

 

Explanation: Pteridophytes are devoid of cambium, cork, and secondary vascular structures.

 

Q24. Most advanced gymnosperm belongs to:

A. Cycadales

B. Coniferales

C. Gnetales

D. Cycadofilicales

Answer: Gnetales

 

Explanation: The phylum Gnetophyta has a tiny group of vascular seed plants known as the Gnetophyta. <i>Ephedra</i>, <i>Gnetum</i>, and Welwitschia are the only three genera in the Gnetophyta, each of which belongs to a separate family in a single order known as the Gnetales. Gnetales share a lot of characteristics in common with flowering plants (phylum Anthophyta, angiosperms), indicating that gymnosperms are more advanced than flowering plants.

 

Q25. Cones of gymnosperm plants are:

A. Bisexual

B. Sterile

C. Unisexual

D. Any of the above

Answer: Unisexual

 

Explanation: Gymnosperms produce two types of spores: microspores and megaspores, which are produced by distinct sporangia. Microsporangia and megasporangia are two forms of sporangia found on sporophylls, which are leaf-like structures. The pollen sacs are represented by the microsporangia, and the ovules are represented by the megasporangia. Microsporangia are found on microsporophylls (stamens), while megasporangia are found on megasporophylls (carpels).

 

Sporophylls are frequently grouped together to create cones or strobili structures. Male and female cones (containing microsporophylls and megasporangia) are found independently.

 

Q26. Which group is largest in gymnosperm?

A. Pteridophyta

B. Gymnosperms

C. Angiosperm

D. All of the above

Answer: Angiosperm

 

Explanation: Centurion, an individual of Australian mountain ash, or swamp gum (Eucalyptus regnans), is now the world's tallest angiosperm. Angiosperms, which are flowering plants, are the largest and most diverse group within the kingdom plantae.

 

Q27. Ovule absent in: 

A. Pteridophytes

B. Gymnosperm

C. Angiosperm

D. 1 and 2 both

Answer: Pteridophytes

 

Explanation: Cryptogams include Pteridophytes, a group of prehistoric land plants. Pteridophytes, angiosperms, gymnosperms, and bryophytes do not have ovules.

 

Q28. Gymnosperm plants lack:

A. Vessels

B. Fruits

C. Companion cells

D. All of the above

Answer: All of the above

 

Explanation: Gymnosperms are non-flowering, seed-bearing plants. Gymnosperms do not produce true fruits, at least not in the botanical sense, because they lack ovaries. Gymnosperm seeds are called "naked" because no fruit tissue covers them.

 

Similar to Angiosperms, vascular tissues in Gymnosperms are organized into vascular bundles. Xylem, on the other hand, lacks arteries, and phloem lacks partner cells.

 

Q29. Which one has a maximum power of adaptation?

A. Bryophyta

B. Pteridophyta

C. Gymnosperm

D. Angiosperm

Answer: Angiosperm

 

Explanation: Because Angiosperm is the most recent evolution in the plant, it can only have maximal adaptability.

 

Q30. Folk uses of plants are studied under:

A. Pharmacognosy

B. Ethnobotany

C. Eugenics

D. Sericulture

Answer: Ethnobotany

 

Explanation: Ethnobotany is the study of human-plant interactions; however, the term is increasingly commonly used to refer to the study of indigenous or traditional plant knowledge. It covers taxonomy, cultivation, and usage as food, medicine, and shelter for indigenous plants.

 

Q31. Which of the following plant groups has evolved recently?

A. Ferns

B. Gymnosperms

C. Grasses

D. Mosses

Answer: Grasses

 

Explanation: The grasses were the most recent major group of plants to emerge, appearing roughly 40 million years ago in the mid-Paleogene.

 

Q32. Cyanobacteria are found in:

A. Monera

B. Protista

C. Algae

D. Bryophyta

Answer: Monera

 

Explanation: Blue-green algae, also known as <i>Cyanobacteria</i>, is a wide group of prokaryotic organisms that share physical and ecological traits with eukaryotic algae and were once considered as algae, hence the common name. The fact that blue-green algae are prokaryotic has led to their classification in the prokaryotic kingdom Monera.

 

Q33. Bryophytes are ecologically important plants:

A. Best producer in nature

B. Pioneer in succession on barren land

C. Decomposers

D. Nitrifying plants

Answer: Pioneer in succession on barren land.

 

Explanation: Bryophytes can live in any type of rock, soil, or barren ground. They can absorb water from rain and mist, as well as nutrients dissolved in the rain and mist drops. Bryophytes that have died and decayed provide nutrients and pave the way for soil formation. As a result, in primary succession, they are the first organism. 

 

Q34. Non-vascular plants are called as

A. Bryophytes

B. Pteridophytes

C. Fungi

D. Algae

Answer: Bryophytes

 

Explanation: Non-vascular terrestrial plants are known as bryophytes. Fungi and algae are members of the Thallophyta group, which comprises lower plants on land than Bryophytes. Pteridophytes are the first vascular plants that have all of their vascular tissues on land. Because Bryophytes lack genuine leaves, stems, and roots, as well as vascular structures for water and food transport, water is absorbed through diffusion.

 

Q35. The sporophytes of bryophyte is:

A. Parasitic

B. Autotrophic

C. Saprophytic

D. Semi Parasitic or parasitic

Answer: Semi Parasitic or parasitic

 

Explanation: Bryophyte sporophytes are parasitic or semi-parasitic by nature. As a result, option (D) Semi parasitic or parasitic is the correct response. The sporophyte is branching and has multiple sporangia, unlike bryophytes in other land plants. Sporophytes in bryophytes do not have the freedom to live.

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FAQs on MCQs on Histology

1. What exactly is histology, and why is it important?

Histology is the study of the structure and function of tissues. It's crucial to understand what a normal tissue looks like and how it functions in order to recognize various disorders. It also aids in determining what causes particular diseases, how to treat them, and whether or not the treatment is effective.

2. What are histological techniques?

In pathological diagnosis and forensic studies, histological staining is a frequent medical procedure. Fixation, processing, embedding, sectioning, and staining are the five steps in the histological staining process.


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