Amino acids make up the proteins. They are organic compounds of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a variable side chain group. Human beings need 20 essential amino acids for the proper development and functioning of various organs in the body. Out of the 20, 9 are deemed as the most important amino acids.
Amino acids are the compounds that form the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are essential components that make up 75% of the human body. Proteins are responsible for proper overall development.
There are 7 types of amino acids differentiated on the basis of side chains present. Thus, the seven types of amino acids are-
Amidic or the one with the amide group
Essential amino acids like phenylalanine, valine threonine helps maintain the nervous system, promotes muscle growth, and strengthens the immune system.
Essential amino acid Tryptophan is involved in the production of vitamin B3 and serotonin hormone that play a vital role in regulating sleep, boosting mood and maintaining appetite.
Isoleucine plays a vital role in the formation of haemoglobin along with stimulating the pancreas to synthesize insulin and helps transportation of oxygen in the body.
Non essential amino acids like alanine, cysteine, glutamine help in production of glucose and other amino acids, provides resistance, and helps promote a healthy brain function.
There are many such actions of all the amino acids- essential and non essential which help maintain regular processes in the body and promote growth.
Let’s Practise Some Solved MCQs on Amino Acids and Check Our Knowledge of the Chapter
1. Which of the following is true regarding the solubility of amino acids?
Mostly soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvents
They are only water soluble
They are only soluble in organic solvents
Mostly soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water
2. Which of the following essential amino acids is not synthesized by the body?
3. From which of the following components amino acids are generally synthesized?
4. Amino acids with the non polar aliphatic ‘R’ group are
Glycine, alanine, leucine
Serine, threonine, cysteine
Lysine, arginine, histidine
Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan
5. Amino acids with aromatic side chain are
tryptophan, asparagine, tyrosine
tryptophan, threonine, tyrosine
phenylalanine, tryptophan, serine
phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine
6. Which of the following amino acids yield Acetyl CoA during catabolism?
None of the above
7. Which of the following is a true statement?
Tryptophan and tyrosine are significantly more polar than phenylalanine
Leucine is commonly used as an ingredient in the buffers of SDS page
Aspartate is an essential amino acid
Lysine is a non-essential amino acid
8. Out of these, which one is the non essential amino acid?
9. Which of the following is an essential amino acid?
10. The difference between amino acid and imino acid is
Bonding of carbonyl group with the amide group
Bonding of nitrogen in the amide group
Bonding of nitrogen in the carbonyl group
Presence of covalent bond between amide and carbonyl group
11. Which of the following is an example of imino acid?
12. Which of the following amino acids is both glucogenic and ketogenic in nature?
13. Which of the following is true in case of an amino acid that yields acetoacetyl CoA during the catabolism of its carbon skeleton?
It’s glycogenic in nature
It’s ketogenic in nature
It’s an essential amino acid
It can be either glucogenic or ketogenic in nature
14. Among the 20 standard proteins which coding amino acids, which of the following occurs the least number of times in proteins?
15. Which of these is the first amino acid in a polypeptide chain?
16. Which of the following are sulfur containing amino acids?
Cysteine and methionine
Methionine and threonine
Cysteine and threonine
Cysteine and serine
17. Which of the following are positively charged basic amino acids?
Lysine and arginine
Lysine and asparagine
Glutamine and arginine
Lysine and glutamine
18. Out of theses, the acidic amino acids are-
Arginine and glutamate
Aspartate and asparagine
Aspartate and lysine
Aspartate and glutamate
19. The 21st amino acid is
20. Out of the following, amino acids with hydroxyl groups are-
Serine and alanine
Alanine and Valine
Serine and threonine
Valine and Isoleucine