Human Life Cycle

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Various Stages of Human Life

Human life cycle is the cycle that occurs in human beings and involves a time period for different stages of life. The ideal nutrition and physical well-being ensures prosperity of each stage and helps humans to live more. The major six stages of the human life cycle are known that starts with the prenatal stage where fertilisation takes place and foetal development occurs inside a mother and then ends with the death of human beings. Therefore, old age is the final stage of the life cycle and death is the end of human life cycle.

Human life cycle biology chapter is there in the books for students and it is easy to understand. In this we’ll talk about human life cycle and the various stages of human life cycle. 

What are the Six Stages in the Human Life Cycle?

The Human Life Cycle consists of various stages that include foetus, baby, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and elderly; these are discussed in detail as follows:

Stage 1:

  1. Foetus- It is a creation called zygote with the fusion of an egg from the mother and a sperm from the father. Zygote looks like a bundle of cells that divides rapidly and turns into an embryo after about 2-4 weeks inside the mother’s womb. It takes about 8 weeks for the embryo to turn into a human body shape and it is called the foetus.

Stage 2:

  1. Baby- After nine months in the mother’s womb, a baby is born. Babies under 1 year of age are called infants and are fed on mother’s milk. Newborn babies are able to suck, breathe, swallow and cry when they feel hungry/cold/hot or any other uncomfortable situation. This is the way of expressing themselves as they cannot talk at this stage.

Stage 3:

  1. Childhood- This among the various stages of human life can be divided into 3 sub stages, namely-

  • Toddler: It is a child who is a grown up baby and is between the ages of 1-3 years. Here, a child slowly learns crawling, walking, talking, running, jumping, identifying things and eating by themselves.

  • Preschooler: It is a child who is between the ages of 3-5 years. At this sub-stage of childhood, the child can communicate properly, read, write, make friends and indulge in various childhood activities. 

  • Primary School Kid: It is a child who is between the ages of 5-12 years. At this stage, a child or primary schooler has developed good muscle control and coordination, eye-hand coordination, personal habits, thinking patterns, awareness of safety issues and personal habits and choices.

Stage 4:

  1. Adolescence- In this human life cycle stage, a child grows into an adolescent through puberty period. Puberty is the process of physical changes where a child's body matures into an adult body that is capable of sexual reproduction. It starts from the age of 13 years and continues up to 19 years of age. Adolescents are also called teenagers as they belong to thirteen to nineteen years of age range. Many hormonal changes in the body take place that appear externally too. Some of the changes taking place in boys and girls include turning taller, heavier and stronger, getting hair under arms, on arms and legs and around genitals, oily skin and more sweating. Boys' specific changes are deep and rough voice, hair on face, broader chests, shoulders and muscles and girls’ specific changes include development of breasts, bigger hips and start of menstruation cycle. It is considered that the adolescence stage is difficult to manage for parents as there are behavioural and attitudinal changes in teenagers and they find more comfortable in being independent in their day-to-day activities. 

Stage 5:

  1. Adulthood

This stage comprises people who fall in the range of ages between 20 -65 years and they are called adults. This is the right age for the process of reproduction and making babies. Adults can be young adults i.e. 20-36 years, middle-aged adults i.e. 36-55 years and older adults i.e. 55-65 years. 

Stage 6:

  1. Elderly

A person who reaches 65 years of age generally belongs to the elderly group. The average life expectancy of a person can range from 70-85 years. It also depends on the overall health and fitness of a person. The healthier a person is, their life expectancy is more. 

So, these were the six different stages of the human life cycle explained above that include foetus (pregnancy), birth of a baby (infant), toddler or preschooler, teenager, adult man/woman and old person.

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FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1.  What is Adolescence?

Adolescence is one of the various stages of the human life cycle where a growing child turns to the age of thirteen years and it continues till the age of nineteen years. During this time, a growing child undergoes puberty and develops physical changes such as hair growth, strong muscles, voice cracking, breast development (in girls) and so on. 

2. What is Important for Proper Sustenance of the Human Life Cycle?

Human development and growth is taken care of by the proper nutrition and energy. Also, this energy has to be recycled with the help of physical exercises that help build muscles and strength which assist us to live longer. In all the stages of human life, be it infant, toddler, adolescence, adult or elderly, basic nutrients such as carbohydrates, fatty acids, essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals are important for sustenance of a healthy lifestyle.