Human Genome Project

An international scientific research project known as the HGP, saw its completion in the year 2003 after it successfully sequenced 3.3 billion base pairs' human genome. So, what is HGP's full form? HGP is the abbreviation of the Human Genome Project. This project resulted in the rise and expansion of bioinformatics, which happens to be an important and significant area belonging to the research. The success of the project could help in comprehending and coming up with solutions for many human disorders and deformations. HGP helps us in understanding all such human genetic problems. 

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What Are The Aims of The Human Genome Project (HGP)? 

The human genome project involves analyzing and understanding the following information and the goals of the HGP are - 

  • Optimization of the data analysis.

  • Sequencing the entire genome.

  • Identification of the complete human genome.

  • Developing genome sequence databases to store the data.

  • Careful consideration and keeping in mind any of the legal, ethical, and social issues that the project may pose.

What Are The Methods of The Human Genome Project (HGP)? 

For the successful working of the human genome project (HGP) these two processes are usually used which vary from each other and play a significant role in this project - 

The first method is - Expressed sequence tags is the method in which genes are separated into two distinct categories. One being the genome and the other RNAs. The genomes were then analyzed and placed under the category they resonated with. Some formed the genome while the rest formed the RNAs. 

The second method is - sequence annotation in which the whole genome was initially sequenced, and then the genes were later placed under different categories and labeled accordingly. 

What Is The Process of The Human Genome Project? 

  • The complete gene set was isolated from a cell.

  • There was a complete separation of the gene set from the cell, i.e., absolute isolation of the gene set from a cell. 

  • The gene set was then divided into tiny compartments.

  • After the second process, the DNA structure was then expanded using the assistance of a vector. Now, this vector is usually known as Bacterial artificial chromosomes, also known as BAC and Yeast artificial chromosomes, also known as YAC. 

  • Then in the second process, the gene set that was divided into small pieces is sequenced with the help of DNA sequencers. 

  • Depending on the regions which overlapped, then the sequences were placed into an arrangement. 

  • After that process, every single information that there is on the genome sequence is kept in a program that is based on a computerized system. 

  • And this is how entire genomes are sequenced and preserved in the computers as genome databases. The next step that they wanted to achieve was genome mapping. This was successfully achieved with the assistance and aid of microsatellites, that is, DNA sequences that are repeated. 

What Are The Features of The Human Genome Project? 

  • 3164.7 nucleotides make up one entire genome. 

  • Even an average is taken then, 3000 nucleotides are the components in one gene. 

  • There are still more than 50% of genes whose functions and operations are yet to be explored and understood. 

  • Even less than 2% of genomes are capable of coding the proteins. 

  • A majority of the genomes are composed of sequences that are repeated and have no particular purposes for coding. However, these additional codes have the ability to help us understand the functions of genes and genetic evolution of humans over the years. 

What Are The Applications of The Human Genome Project or HGP? 

With the successful completion of the human genome project and as all the aims of the project were finally fulfilled, it resulted in a greater evolution and progress in the research field. In today's time, if there is any such rise of a disease owing to the change made in a particular gene, then our scientists' can track them down, and a side by side study of that gene with our current genome database can be done. This helps in analyzing the situation, coming up with an efficient solution, and an effective measure can then be taken to solve the issue. This saves a lot of trouble and can be solved with much more ease. 

This project has opened up doors to new opportunities and a broader perspective, which can be used to understand in depth the various genetic fields. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is a Draft Genome Sequence vs. a Finished Genome Sequence?

Coverage, the number of gaps, and the error rate determine which ones are draft genome sequences and which ones are finished genome sequences. The draft sequence managed to cover 90% of the genome and had an error rate, which was 1 in 1000 base pairs. However, there were over 150,000 gaps with the presence of only 28% of the genome, which had gone up to the finishing. In 2003, in the month of April, there were around 400 gaps, with 99% of the genome reaching the finishing stage and the error rate of 1 in 10,000 base pairs.   

2. What is a Genome?

A set of deoxyribonucleic acids, also commonly known as DNA, is called a genome. This chemical compound has valuable information pertaining to genetics, studying which one can analyze and develop the functions of every organism. DNA molecules are composed of two strands that are twisted and are found in pairs. Every individual strand is composed of four chemical compartments, which are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). A is always paired with T, and C is always paired with G i. e, they are paired with opposite strands.