Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Translations

The process used to transfer the genetic information stored in the DNA into units of transportable complementary RNA replicas, is called Eukaryotic Transcription. 

In prokaryotes transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell as it lacks the membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles. 

Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Translation

In the process of translation, the nucleotide triplets, also known as the  codons, present on the mRNA will be translated into amino acid sequence. 

Protein synthesis involves the process of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Translations. 

The major difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation that lies is that the eukaryotic translation and transcription is a process that is asynchronous whereas prokaryotic translation and transcription is a synchronized process. The Difference between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Translation are as follows - 

  • Cell Size

Eukaryotic cells are larger (10 – 100um) than the prokaryotic cells (1 – 10um).

  • Cell Arrangement

The arrangement of the cells are also different. Eukaryotes are often multicellular whereas prokaryotes are unicellular. 

  • True Membrane-Bound Nucleus

Eukaryotic cells double membrane surrounded by true nucleus. It performs the functions of the large cell in a smaller enclosure to ensure that there is close proximity to materials and increased efficiency for cellular communication and functions that are generally DNA-related. 

  • DNA Structure

Eukaryotic DNA is linear and complex along with the packaging proteins that are known as the "histones," named before organization into a number of chromosomes. Prokaryotic DNA is circular. It is neither linked with histones nor organized into chromosomes. 

For a clear understanding of the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Translations, have a look at the table below - 

Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Translations

Comparison Basis

Prokaryotic Translation

Eukaryotic Translation

Definition

The translation & transcription process is synchronous

The translation and transcription process is discontinuous

mRNA

Cytoplasm

Nucleus

Cap initiation

Cap-independent

Cap-dependent and Cap-independent

Performed by

70S ribosomes

80S ribosomes

Stability of mRNA

Unstable

Stable

Ribosomes

30S & 50S = 70S

40S & 60S = 80S

Lifespan of mRNA

A few seconds to 2 minutes

A few hours to days

Occurrence

No definite phase

G1 and G2 phase of the cell cycle

process

Fast

Slow

Release factor

RF1, RF2

eRF

Initiation factors

3

9

Prokaryotic Cells 

Prokaryotes are one of the most ancient groups of living organisms which derives the meaning as being ‘Before Nuclei’ on earth, with fossil records dating back to almost 3.5 billion years ago.

These prokaryotes were found in the earth’s ancient environment, some using up chemical energy and others using the sun’s energy. These extremophiles survived for millions of years, evolving and adapting. Scientists made a conclusion that these organisms gave rise to the eukaryotes.

Eukaryotic Cells 

Eukaryotes are more complex and much larger than the prokaryotes. Almost all the major kingdoms are included in this except for kingdom monera. Structure wise, eukaryotes possess a cell wall, which supports and protects the plasma membrane. The cell is surrounded by the plasma membrane and it controls the entry and exit of certain substances. 

Similarities Between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

Along with some differences, there are also some similarities between the Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells. The similarities are the following - 

Cell Membrane

Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells consist of a lipid bilayer, which is an arrangement of phospholipids and proteins that is a selective barrier between the internal and external environment of the cell.

Genetic Material

Both the Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells use deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the basis for their genetic information. This genetic material is needed to regulate and perform the cell function through the creation of RNA by transcription, followed by the generation of proteins through translation.

Ribosomes

Ribosomes help in theRNA translation and also the creation of protein, which is essential to the smooth functioning of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is the place in which the biochemical reactions of the cell take place, of which the primary component is cytosol. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm consists of everything between the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope, including the organelles; the material within the nucleus is termed the nucleoplasm. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What are Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Translations? 

Ans - The process used to transfer the genetic information stored in the DNA into units of transportable complementary RNA replicas, is called Eukaryotic Transcription. 

In prokaryotes transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell as it lacks the membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles. 

Q2. What is the Difference Between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Translations? 

Ans - In the process of translation, the nucleotide triplets, also known as the  codons, present on the mRNA will be translated into amino acid sequence. Protein synthesis involves the process of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Translations. The difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation is that the eukaryotic translation and transcription is a process that is asynchronous whereas prokaryotic translation and transcription is a synchronized process.

Q3. Name some of the Similarities Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells? 

Ans - 1. Cell Membrane 

2. Genetic material

3. Ribosomes

4. Cytoplasm