Difference Between Gene and Chromosome

Genes And Chromosomes

The two genes and chromosomes assume a similarly significant job in holding the information, yet the difference between gene and chromosome can be found. The chromosomes have numerous genes, and these genes hold the data to construct the particular proteins. Proteins are likely the most important class of material in the body. Proteins are not merely building obstructs for muscles, connective tissues, skin, and different structures. They, likewise, are expected to make compounds. Compounds are complex proteins that control and complete every substance procedure and responses inside the body. The body produces a large number of various chemicals. Protein amalgamation is constrained by genes, which are contained on chromosomes. Chromosomes are made up of protein and DNA.


There are many similarities and differences between genes and chromosomes.

A gene is an area of DNA which is engaged with conveying data for a specific trait. They are functional units of heredity and are made of DNA. Genes are responsible for the inherited, and this is the reason behind why we as a whole have comparative qualities of both the guardians like the pigmentation of the eye, hair colour, and so forth. There are around 29 to 30, a considerable number of genes in each cell of the human body. The term gene was first authored in the year 1909 by a Danish botanist Wilhelm Johannsen.


Chromosomes are string-like structures consolidated and are made of proteins and a single particle of deoxyribonucleic acid – DNA. Chromosomes are made up of protein and a single molecule of DNA. They are principally found inside the core of both animals and plant cells. They are passed to posterity from their folks, overages. The term chromosome is gotten from the Ancient Greek word importance shaded body. Each human cell contains 46 or 23 sets of chromosomes. These chromosomes assume a significant job in the cell division process and guarantee that DNA particles are duplicated and conveyed uniformly.

Sets Of Chromosomes

In humans, every cell ordinarily contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a sum of 46. Twenty-two of these sets, called autosomes, appear to be identical in the two guys and females. The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, contrast among guys and females. Females have two duplicates of the X chromosome, while males have one X and one Y chromosome.

The 22 autosomes are numbered by size. X and Y, are the sex chromosomes which are also the other two chromosomes. This image of the human chromosomes arranged two by two is known as a karyotype.

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Structure Of DNA

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the cell's hereditary material, contained in chromosomes inside the cell core and mitochondria.

Aside from specific cells (for instance, sperm and egg cells and red platelets), the cell core typically contains 23 sets of chromosomes. A chromosome contains numerous genes.

The DNA particle is a long, coiled twofold helix that looks like a spiral staircase. In it, two strands, made out of sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate atoms, are associated by sets of four particles called bases. In the means, adenine is combined with thymine and guanine is matched with cytosine. Each pair of bases is held together by a hydrogen bond.

Gene Vs Chromosome

The Difference Between Gene And Chromosome Can Be Explained As



Gene, situated on the chromosome.  

Chromosomes, the stuffed structure of a DNA with proteins.

Genes are not evident under the microscope.

Chromosomes are noticeable under the magnifying lens.

A solitary gene is the chromosome's locus.

A single chromosome involves numerous genes.

Genes are made out of either DNA or RNA.

Chromosomes are made out of DNA, histones, and RNA. 

Gene transformations are small.

Chromosomal changes are generally massive. 

Gene transformations lead to point changes and frameshift changes: additions and deletions

Chromosomal rearrangements lead to chromosomal irregularities, for example, erasure, duplication, revision and reversal of genes.

Solved Questions

  1. Explain Chromosome Definition Biology.

A couple of homologous chromosomes definition or homologous chromosomes are made up of a lot of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with one another inside a cell during treatment or fertilization.

Fun Facts

  • People share about 90% of hereditary or genetic material with mice and 98% genetic material with chimpanzees.

  • About each cell in the human body contains a total duplicate of the human genome.

  • We get 23 pairs of chromosomes from our mom and dad.

  • A few infections are acquired through genes.

  • An elephant has 56 chromosomes, and a garden pea has 14 chromosomes.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Explain How The DNA Organized Into Chromosomes And Genes.

The cell nucleus is the most significant organelle, and it's here that we discover our DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) bundled up firmly into structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes are long string-like structures made of a DNA atom and protein. During cell division, chromosomes are all the more effectively obvious under a magnifying lens. Human cells have 23 sets of chromosomes.

A base, a sugar and a phosphate makes the composition of nucleotides. The four bases – adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T) – pair with one another. It is the requestor arrangement of these base matches that gives the data expected to the development and improvement of our bodies. These 'words' are called genes and act like a lot of guidelines for our cells.

2. How Many Types Of Chromosomes Are There?

Four types:

  • Metacentric Chromosomes

It has the centromere in the inside, to such an extent that the two segments are of equivalent length. Human chromosome 1 and 3 are metacentric.

  • Submetacentric Chromosomes

The centromere somewhat counterbalances from the middle prompting a slight asymmetry in the length of the two areas are there in it.

  • Acrocentric Chromosomes

It has a centromere which is thoughtfully balanced from the middle prompting one long and one short area. Human chromosomes 13,15, 21, and 22 are acrocentric.

  • Telocentric Chromosomes

It has the centromere at the finish of the chromosome. People don't have telocentric chromosomes generally.