Cattle Farming Animal Husbandry

Introduction

Man-animal associations have existed on earth since days beyond recall and animals have always been an integral parcel in man’s food system. Since time-immemorial people have been siphoning various food products such as eggs, milk, meat etc from animals. Besides food, animals have also catered us with transportation facilities as well as clothing. However, no authentic records have been conceived hitherto which could decipher the facts on evolution of various breeds of domesticated animals. 

As the global population is escalating steadily, the demand for some elementary requirements such as clothing, shelter and food products is also surging. In order to fill the bill, animal husbandry was introduced. Animal Husbandry incorporates domestication of animals and other schemes like cattle farming, fisheries, poultry farming etc. 

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry can be defined as a wing of agriculture which is associated with ranching of domestic animals inclusive of breeding, feeding and providing shelter to them. The fundamental principles of animal husbandry are represented below:

The term “Animal Husbandry” was first coined during the Neolithic Revolution when the earliest domestication of animals was conducted. During the era of early civilizations, sheep, goats and cattle were reared on farms. Nonetheless, modernistic husbandries are based on adaptation of production structures on the accessibility of land and its genre. 


“Subsistence farming is being superseded by intensive animal farming in the more developed parts of the world, where for example beef cattle are kept in high density feedlots, and thousands of chickens may be raised in broiler houses or batteries”.
                         


Animal husbandry or the “domestication of livestock” was induced based on the requisite to have sufficient food when hunting had become futile. The enviable features which a domesticated animal should possess are:

  • The animal is ought to be constructive for the domesticator.

  • The animal is ought to be capable of thriving in the domesticator’s company.

  • The animal is ought to breed freely as well as be tended effortlessly.

  • The entire process of domestication was not an event of day; it recurred throughout years in different places across the globe. During its recursion, several enhancements and modifications occurred in the procedure. There were establishment of innovative ideas for crop rotation and cultivation of crops regarding winter fodder. 

    In the late 18th centuries, animal rearing has progressed to great extent incorporating high scale merchandize activities world-wide. It is inferred that “animal husbandry” is that sector which has high potential to grow in the upcoming years. The prospective of this sector requires to be exploited so that it can participate in providing “sustainable employment” in its location itself as well as apprehend the immigration of inhabitants to urban locations. 

    Cattle Farming

    “Cattles are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae”. 


    Cattles are considered to be the key assets in our day to day food consumption. Since ages, Cattles have been an integral segment in our livelihood especially from the perspective of food. Cattles farming or Cattle ranching can be defined as the large-scale rearing of Cattles and raising them for various agricultural purposes. Cattle Farming is conducted for two main intentions: 

  • Dairy: Animals that are reared for extraction of milk. Some examples of dairy or milch breeds are: cows, goats, buffalos etc.

  • Draught: Animals deployed in various agricultural as well as transportation tasks such as irrigation, carting etc. Some examples of animals deployed as draught are: horses, cows, buffalos etc.

  • Various Breeds of cowsVarious Breeds of Buffaloes
    The Indigenous BreedsExotic BreedsCross BreedsMurrah, Surti and Meshsana.
    Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Gir, TharparkarJersey, Holstein-friesian, Brown SwissKaran Swiss, Frieswal, karan Fries.


    Breeding conducted relying on desired features

  • The production of milk is utterly reliant on the extent of “lactation period” which implies that subsequent to the delivery of a new calf production of milk is more. Therefore, milk production can be augmented by boosting the span of lactation.

  • For augmenting the lactation span, some exotic breeds are picked. Relevant instances of exotic breeds are provided in the table. The local or the indigenous breeds represent excellence in disease resistance. While, both the indigenous as well as exotic breeds can be cross breed in order to obtain the best quality cows.

  • The cross-breeding of these two breeds can be conducted through natural means or by the means of artificial insemination. Artificial insemination is the process which involves siphoning of semen from a particular bull and infusing it into a selected cow’s reproductive tract. Relevant examples of cross-breeds are also provided in the table above.

  • Farm Management

    Animal rearing or cattle rearing encompasses a lot of responsibilities too. In order to meet our expectations, we need to take good care of our cattle and livestock. Mentioned below are some significant aspects which we need to ponder while domesticating animals:

  • Grooming and Providing Shelter: Cattles need proper routine concerned to their grooming sessions which includes brushing of hair and dirt, washing with clean water etc. The shelter should be hygienic and spacious enough for the cattle to feel comfortable. The roofs of the shelter have to be well-ventilated in order to secure them from climatic circumstances.

  • Food Requirement: Cattles also require balance diets composed of nutrients that are present in their foods in proportionate amounts. In addition to nutrients, the some feed additives that consist of certain micronutrients also stimulate good health.

  • Treatment of Disease: The Cattles ought to be regularly vaccinated and sick animals should be isolated until they are healthy again.

  • In Summary

  • Animals have always been an integral parcel in our food system.

  • Animal Husbandry incorporates domestication of animals and other schemes like cattle farming, fisheries, poultry farming etc.

  • Animal Husbandry can be defined as a wing of agriculture which is associated with ranching of domestic animals inclusive of breeding, feeding and providing shelter to them.

  • The term “Animal Husbandry” was first coined during the Neolithic Revolution when the earliest domestication of animals was conducted.

  • Cattles farming or Cattle ranching can be defined as the large-scale rearing of Cattles and raising them for various agricultural purposes.

  • Some significant aspects which we need to ponder while domesticating animals are: Grooming and Providing Shelter, Treatment of Disease and Food Requirements.