Also known as Syzygium cumini and commonly popular as Malabar plum, black plum, jambolan or Java plum, Jamun is an evergreen tropical tree. Botanical name of Jamun is Syzygium cumini as mentioned above and it belongs to the family Myrtaceae and has great importance for its fruit, ornamental value and timber. Jamun is native to the Indian Subcontinent and other regions of Southeast Asia that includes Sri Lanka, Myanmar and the Andaman Islands. It is an invasive species in many regions of the world and is a rapidly growing plant. Knowing about its chromosome number, 2n = 40.
Jamun tree is usually grown as avenue tree or as wind break and consists of a straight trunk and is medium or large in size. It looks graceful and is evergreen. It is native to India, Malaysia, Pakistan, SriLanka and Burma. It is highly recognizable by people for its medicinal properties. It is believed in Hindu tradition that Lord Rama subsisted on its fruits in the forest for long 14 years of his exile from Ayodhya. It is the reason that many Hindus regard Jamun as the fruit of the Gods, mostly in Gujarat, India and local Gujaratis call it Jamboon.
(Image to be added soon)
Being native to India, Ceylon and Burma and also to the Andaman Islands, it is available throughout Indian plains up to 1300 m of height.
It is grown as a wild and semi-wild tree In different states of India including Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
In addition to S. cumini other major species of Jamun in India is S.jumbos known as rose apple or safed jamun which is found in South India, Assam and West Bengal.
Other various species of minor importance include S.javanica (water apple), S.fruticosum, S. densiflora and S. Uniflora.
Syzygium cumini (Jamun tree botanical name) is generally seen that inflorescence in Jamun is borne in the axils of its leaves on the branchlet and the flowering starts in the first week of March and can last upto the first week of April. Jamun flowers are light yellow in colour and are hermaphrodite (that have complete or partial reproductive organs and can produce gametes associated with both male and female sexes). According to studies, the maximum anthesis i.e. 18.71 percent to 43.08 percent and dehiscence were seen between 10 am and 12 noon. Also, the maximum receptivity of stigma was observed one day after anthesis.
Flowers are seen regular, bisexual having 5 free sepals and petals with 8 stamens and a simple style. It is known that anthesis starts at about 8 am and takes 10 hours to complete. The maximum numbers of flowers open between 5 pm to 6 pm. In some flowers, anthesis could be seen between 5 am to 6 am in the morning. Jamun is a cross-pollinated crop and the pollination is performed by houseflies, honey bees and wind. It is seen that only 12-15 percent flowers reach the maturity stage and the flower and fruit drop are present in 3 stages.
Propagation of Jamun can be done through seeds which are highly recalcitrant in nature. The freshly extracted seeds are generally sown for raising seedlings. The seeds germinate within two weeks and these can then be transplanted during monsoon season in the field. Also other methods of propagation such as budding methods are known to be successful and patch budding can be performed in the months of March in semiarid areas. In addition, soft wood grafting is adopted mostly in Karnataka and Gujarat in the months of June and August, respectively.
Using Biotechnology, the nodal segments, epicotyl segments and shoot apices of the plant have been used as the explants for micropropagation. The regenerated plantlets are then acclimatized and transferred to the soil successively.
It is performed to achieve a high yielding variety of the plant.
For attaining early maturing varieties.
It also improves physico-chemical properties such as fruit weight, pulp content, acidity, TSS, etc.
To achieve resistance against flower and fruit drop.
Today, there are numerous seedling strains of Jamun available in India that provide a great scope for selection of better cultivars.
An important criteria for selection is the oval/oblong fruit shape, deep purple or bluish black colour, more pulp, larger size, small stone, earliness, sweetness and juiciness.
1. What is the Jamun Botanical Name and Family?
Botanical name for Jamun is Syzygium cumini and it belongs to the Myrtaceae family. Jamun plant gives a bluish black colored fruit which consists of several nutrients and vitamins. It helps in fighting various diseases such as diabetes, infections and liver problems. Jamun has low calories and therefore makes perfect healthy snacks. It has a sweet or slightly flavour of acid and can be eaten raw and are made into jam and sauces.
2. Give the Nutrition Content of Jamun
Jamun consists of 83 percent water, 16 percent carbohydrates, 1 percent protein and negligible fat. In a 100 gm amount, it provides 60 calories and vitamin C which is a moderate amount.