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Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Class 12 Notes CBSE Chemistry Chapter 11(Free PDF Download)

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Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 (Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers) - Free PDF Download

Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 - Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers are available in Vedantu. These revision notes are created as per the latest syllabus of the CBSE Chemistry for Class 12. The Revision Notes for Class 12 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers have important topics that are covered in the textbook. All the concepts and reactions from the curriculum are explained in a detailed manner. Students can refer to these notes for learning the important reactions, concepts, mechanisms and prepare for their board exams. These notes are available in a PDF format and can be downloaded for free.

Topics Covered in Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Class 12 Notes

The important topics covered in Chapter 11 are as follows:

  • Classification

  • Nomenclature

  • Structures of Functional groups

  • Alcohols and phenols

  • Some Commercially Important alcohols

  • Ethers

Download CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Notes 2024-25 PDF

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Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Basic Subjective Questions - Class 12 Revision Notes


Section – A (1 Mark Questions)

1. What is the IUPAC name of o-cresol ?

Ans. 2-Methylbenzenol


2. What is the formula of methoxyethane? 

Ans. CH3OCH2CH3


3. What is the IUPAC name of Picric acid?

Ans. 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP)



4. Name the reagents used in the oxidation of primary alcohol to carboxylic acid

Ans. alkaline KMnO4



5. What is the general formula of monohydric alcohol ?

Ans. CnH2nOH



6. Phenol on distillation with zinc dust produces……….

Ans. Benzene



7. Dipole moment in ether is due to …..

Ans. The C - O bonds in the ether are polar and thus ethers have a net dipole moment.



8. Williamson’s synthesis is used to prepare………

Ans. Ether



9. What is the IUPAC name of C6H5-O-C2H5 ?

Ans. Ethoxy benzene



10. What is the IUPAC name of salicyclic acid?

Ans. 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid


Section – B (2 Marks Questions)

11. What is the class of compound formed by the substitution of a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon by an alkoxy or aryloxy group ?

Ans. The substitution of a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon by an alkoxy or aryloxy group               (R–O/Ar–O) yields another class of compounds known   as 'ethers', for example, CH3OCH3 (dimethyl ether).



12. What are the products formed by the mononitration of 3 – methylphenol?

Ans. OH and CH3 groups are ortho, and para–directing, so major products are


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13. What are the gases released when p –nitrophenol react with NaHCO3?

Ans. 


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14. What is the product formed when phenol reacts with Br2/H2O

Ans. 

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15. Why are ethers relatively inert compounds ?

Ans. Ethers are inert compounds because the functional group of ethers (-O-) does not contain any active site. Therefore, under ordinary conditions, they are stable to bases, dilute acids and other oxidising and reducing agents.



16. Why ether is more volatile than alcohol  having same molecular mass ?

Ans. An ether is more volatile than alcohol having the same molecular formula. This is due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding in alcohols. In alcohols, H atom is attached to strongly electronegative O atom. Therefore, they exist as an associated molecule due to hydrogen bonding.



17. Write the product when ethanol react with conc. H2SO4 at 445 K

Ans. $CH_{3}-\underset{\text{Ethylalcohol}}{CH_2}-OH\xrightarrow[443K]{H_{2}SO_{4}}CH_{2_{Ethene}}=CH_{2}+H_{2}O$



18. What is the hybridisation of carbon and oxygen in ether?

Ans. 


hybridisation


19. Write the decreasing order of acidity of 1° alcohol, 2° alcohol and 3° alcohol .

Ans. An electron releasing group (CH3, C2H5) increases electron density on oxygen tending to decrease the polarity of OH bond. This decreases the acid strength. For this reason, the acid strength of alcohols decreases in the following order


1° alcohol, 2° alcohol and 3° alcohol



PDF Summary - Class 12 Chemistry Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Notes (Chapter 11)

1. Introduction

Alcohols are compounds that have a hydroxyl group  \[\left( {{\text{ - OH}}} \right)\]  attached to a saturated carbon atom. Enols are compounds that have a hydroxyl group attached to an unsaturated carbon atom of a double bond. The saturated carbon can be alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, or benzyl. If, on the other hand, a hydroxyl group is attached to a benzene ring. Phenols are the name given to these compounds.


The alcohols are further classified as monohydric (containing one  \[{\text{ - OH}}\]  group), dihydric (containing two  \[{\text{ - OH}}\]  groups), and trihydric (containing three  \[{\text{ - OH}}\]  groups) (containing three  \[{\text{ - OH}}\]  groups).


Alcohol is used in both industry and everyday life. Chiefly ethanol, for example, is a common spirit used to polish wooden furniture. Sugar, cotton, and paper are all composed of compounds that contain groups. Phenols are found in a variety of important polymers, including Bakelite, as well as pharmaceuticals such as Aspirin. Ethers are commonly used as anaesthetics and solvents.


In alcohols, the oxygen of the  group is attached to carbon by a sigma (  bond formed by the overlap of a sp hybridised forbital of carbon with a sp hybridised orbital of oxygen. The following figure depicts structural aspects of methanol, phenol and methoxymethane.


2. Classification

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Classification of alcohols and symmetrical and unsymmetrical ether


3. Structure of Functional Groups

In the structure of alcohols, the oxygen of hydroxyl group is connected to carbon through a sigma bond which is formed by the overlapping of  \[\text{s}{{\text{p}}^{3}}\]  hybridised orbital of C with a  \[\text{s}{{\text{p}}^{3}}\]  hybridised orbital of oxygen. The structural aspects of phenol, methanol and methoxymethane are depicted by the following figure.


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Structure of methanol


Due to lone pair-lone pair repulsion, bond angle is slightly less.


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Structure of Phenol


Since a pair of oxygen is delocalised on the ring, the length of the  \[{\text{C - O}}\]  bond is reduced.


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Structure of Methoxymethane


Due to the general repulsive interaction between the two bulky (R) groups, the bond angle in methoxymethane is greater than the tetrahedral angle. The length of the  \[{\text{C - O}}\] bond is the same as in alcohols.


4. Physical Properties

4.1 Boiling Point

The boiling points of alcohols and phenols rise as the number of carbon atoms increases (increase in van der Waals forces). The boiling point of alcohol decreases as branching increases (decrease in Van der Waals forces due to decrease in surface area). In alcohols and phenols, the -OH group contains a hydrogen atom that is bonded to an electronegative oxygen atom. As a result, it is capable of forming intermolecular hydrogen bonds with greater strength than amine.


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Formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in alcohols and phenols


Alcohols and phenols have higher boiling points than other classes of compounds, such as hydrocarbons, ethers, and haloalkanes/haloarenes, amines with comparable molecular masses, due to the presence of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding.


Their boiling points are lower than those of carboxylic acid, which has a stronger hydrogen bond. Boiling points for isomeric alcohols decrease as branching increases due to a decrease in van der Waals forces as size decreases. The boiling point sequence is primary alcohol > secondary alcohol > tertiary alcohol.


Due to lower dipole moment and the absence of H-bonding, the boiling point of ethers is very low and comparable to that of alkanes of comparable molecular mass.


4.2 Solubility 

Alcohols and phenols are soluble in water due to their ability to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Solubility decreases as the size of the hydrophobic group increases (R). Higher concentrations of alcohol are insoluble. Because of the decrease in surface area of the nonpolar hydrocarbon part, branching increases solubility.

n-butyl alcohol < isobutyl alcohol < sec-butyl alcohol < tert-butyl alcohol


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Formation of hydrogen bonds Between alcohol and water


Lower ethers are water soluble, but their solubility is lower than that of alcohol due to less H-bonding with water and being less polar.


5. Preparation of Alcohols


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Flow chart showing preparation of alcohols


5.1 Alkane

Controlled oxidation


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5.2 Alkenes

5.2.1 Acid Catalyzed Hydration

Markovnikov addition with carbocation rearrangements.


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Reaction showing Acid Catalyzed Hydration of alkene


5.2.2 Oxymercuration-Demercuration

Markovnikov addition without carbocation rearrangements.

Example - 1


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Reaction showing Oxymercuration-Demercuration


5.2.3 Hydroboration-Oxidation Anti-Markovnikov Addition.

Example-2


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Reaction showing Hydroboration-Oxidation Anti-Markovnikov addition


5.2.4 SYN Hydroxylation

Reagents: Cold dil.  \[{\text{KMn}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{4}}}/{\text{NaOH or Os}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{4}}}/{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}\] 

Example-3


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Reaction showing Syn Hydroxylation


5.2.5 ANTI Hydroxylation  

Reagents: Peroxy acids followed by acidic hydrolysis

Example-4


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Reaction showing Anti Hydroxylation


5.3 Alkyl Halide

5.3.1 Second Order Substitution

Primary and some Secondary Halides

${{\left( \text{C}{{\text{H}}_{3}} \right)}_{2}}\text{CHC}{{\text{H}}_{2}}\text{C}{{\text{H}}_{2}}-\text{Br}\xrightarrow[{{\text{H}}_{2}}\text{O}]{\text{KOH}}{{\left( \text{C}{{\text{H}}_{3}} \right)}_{2}}\text{CHC}{{\text{H}}_{2}}\text{C}{{\text{H}}_{2}}-\text{OH}$

Example -6 


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Reaction between tertiary butyl chloride and acetone


5.3.2 Grignard Reagent/ Organolithium Reagent

Nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group


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  1. Addition to Formaldehyde-primary alcohol 

Example-7 


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Reaction showing addition of Grignard Reagent to Formaldehyde forming primary alcohol


  1. Addition to aldehyde-secondary alcohol 

Example-8 


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Reaction showing addition of Grignard Reagent to aldehyde forming a secondary alcohol


  1. Addition to a ketone-tertiary alcohol 

Example-9 


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Reaction showing addition of Grignard Reagent to a ketone forming a tertiary alcohol


  1. Addition to an acid-halide or an Ester-tertiary alcohol 

Example-10 

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  1. Addition to Ethylene oxide-primary alcohol (with two carbon atoms added)

Example-11

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5.4 Carbonyl Compounds

5.4.1 Catalytic Hydrogenation


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Reaction showing Catalytic Hydrogenation


This method is usually not known as effective or selective as the use of hydride reagents.

5.4.2 Reduction with Metal Hydrides

  1. Primary alcohol is produced on reduction of an aldehyde.

Example:


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Reaction showing Catalytic Hydrogenation


  1. Secondary alcohol is produced on reduction of a ketone.

Example:


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Reaction showing reduction of a ketone to form a Secondary alcohol.


  1. Tertiary alcohol is produced on reduction of an acid or ester.

Example:


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Reaction showing reduction of an acid or ester to form a Tertiary alcohol .


Reduction of $LiAlH_4$ and $NaBH_4$

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Reaction showing reduction of various functional groups in the presence of


6. Reaction of Alcohols

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Flow chart showing reactions of alcohols


6.1 Dehydration 

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Dehydration Reaction of alcohol


6.2 Substitution


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Substitution  Reaction of alcohol


6.3 Esterification 

It is catalyzed by an acid or a base.


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Esterification Reaction of alcohol


6.4 Tosylation

It is used to convert poor leaving group OH to good leaving group OTs.

Example:


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Tosylation Reaction of alcohol


6.5 Oxidation 

  1. Primary Alcohols


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Oxidation Reaction of  primary alcohol


  1. Secondary alcohols


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Oxidation Reaction of Secondary alcohol


In the presence of any oxidizing agent, secondary alcohol is oxidized to alcohol.

  1. Tertiary alcohols


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Oxidation Reaction of tertiary alcohol


$\mathrm{MNO}{_2}$ is an oxidizing agent which is used to oxidise only benzylic, allylic and propargylic alcohols.


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Showing benzylic, allylic and propargylic alcohols.


Common Phenols and Aromatic Ethers

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7. Preparation of Phenols

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Flow chart showing various methods of preparation of phenol


7.1 Dow’s Process

It is an industrial method which is used for the preparation of phenol. It takes place through a benzene mechanism.

Example: 

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Showing Dow’s Process


7.2 Cumene Process

Example:

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Showing Cumene Process


7.3 Distillation of phenolic acids with soda lime

Example: 

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7.4 Benzene

Example: 

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Showing reaction of Benzene with Hydrogen peroxide to yield phenol


7.5 Grignard Reagent

Example: 

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Showing the formation of phenol using grignard reagent


8. Reaction of Phenols

8.1 Formation of Ethers

  1. Williamson Synthesis


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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Williamson synthesis


  1. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution

Example:

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8.2 Formation of Esters

Example: 

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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Formation of Esters


8.3 Fries Rearrangement

Example:

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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Fries Rearrangement


8.4 Reactions of Benzene Ring

8.4.1 Hydrogenation

Example:

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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Hydrogenation


8.4.2 Oxidation to Quinones

Example:

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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Oxidation to quinones


8.4.3 Electrophilic Substitution

  1. Halogenation

Example:

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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Electrophilic substitution (a) Halogenation


  1. Nitration


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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Electrophilic substitution (b) Nitration


  1. Sulphonation


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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Electrophilic substitution (c) Sulphonation


  1. Diazonium Salt Coupling-Azophenols

\[{\text{Ar}}{{\text{N}}_{\text{2}}}^ \oplus  + {{\text{C}}_{\text{6}}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{5}}}{\text{G}} \to {\text{p}} - {\text{G}} - {{\text{C}}_{\text{6}}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{5}}} - {\text{N}} = {\text{N - Ar}}\] 

Here, G is an electron releasing groups such as -OH, -OR.

  1. Ring Alkylation

Example:

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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Electrophilic substitution (e) Ring Alkylation


RX and $\text{AlC}{{\text{l}}_{3}}$ give poor yields as aluminum chloride coordinates with lone pairs of oxygen. 

  1. Kolbe’s Synthesis

Example:

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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Electrophilic substitution (f) Kolbe’s Synthesis


  1. Reimer-Tiemann Synthesis of phenolic Aldehydes 

Example:

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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Electrophilic substitution (g) Reimer-Tiemann Synthesis of phenolic Aldehydes


This reaction involves the formation of $\text{CC}{{\text{l}}_{2}}$. 

  1. Formation of Aspirin

Example:

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  1. Formation of oil of wintergreen

Example:

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Showing the Reaction of phenols - Electrophilic substitution (j) Formation of oil of wintergreen


9. Ethers

9.1 Williamson Ether Synthesis

 \[{\text{R}} - {{\text{O}}^ - } + {\text{R}}' - {\text{X}} \to {\text{R}} - {\text{O}} - {\text{R}}' + {{\text{X}}^ - }\] 

Note: 

Substrate and leaving Group in Williamson synthesis

  1. Leaving group, that, is,  \[{\text{X}} = {\text{Cl, Br, I, OTs etc}}{\text{.}}\] 

  2. Substrate-Alkyl group R’ should be primary. 

9.2 Alkoxymercuration-Demercuration

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Showing the Alkoxymercuration-Demercuration


This type of reaction follows Markovnikov orientation.

9.3 Bimolecular Dehydration of Alcohols 

This is an industrial method which is used for the synthesis of ethers.

\[2\text{R}\frac{{{\text{H}}^{\oplus }}}{{{1}^{{}^\circ }}}\text{OH}\overset{{}}{\mathop{\text{R}}}\,-\text{O}-\text{R}+{{\text{H}}_{2}}\text{O}\] 


10. Reactions of Ethers

10.1 Cleavage by HBr and HI

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Showing the Cleavage by HBr and HI

10.2 Autoxidation 

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11. Preparation of Epoxide

11.1 Peroxy Acid Epoxidation

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Showing the Preparation of epoxide-1 Peroxy Acid Epoxidation


11.2 Base-Promoted Cyclization of Halohydrins 

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Showing the Preparation of epoxide-2 Base-promoted cyclization of halohydrins


Example

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Showing the reaction of 2-Chloro-1-Phenylethanol tp yield 2-Phenyloxirane


12. Reactions of Epoxides 

12.1 Acid-Catalyzed Opening

  1. In Water

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Showing the Reactions of Epoxides - (a) In water


Anti-stereochemistry is followed here.

  1. In Alcohols

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Showing the Reactions of Epoxides - (b) In alcohols


Here, the alkoxy group is bonded to the more highly substituted carbon.

Example:

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Reaction of methyl Oxirane to yield 2-Methoxy-propan-1-ol


  1. Hydrohalic Acids (X = Cl, Br, I)


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Showing the Reactions of Epoxides - (c) Hydrohalic Acids (X = Cl, Br, I)


12.2 Base-Catalyzed Opening

  1. With Alkoxides

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Showing the Reactions of Epoxides - 2 Base-Catalyzed opening (a) With Alkoxides


The alkoxy group is bonded to less highly substituted carbon.

Example:


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Reaction of Propylene oxide to yield 1-Methoxy-2-propanol


  1. With Organometallics


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Showing the Reactions of Epoxides - 2 Base-Catalyzed opening (b) With Organometallics


Example:

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Reaction of Propylene oxide to yield 1-Cyclohexyl-2-Propanol


Note:

Opening of Epoxide Ring

  1. In acid catalyzed opening, a nucleophile attacks the epoxide carbon, allowing a more stable carbocation to be formed.

  2. Nucleophile attacks on the less hindered carbon in base catalyzed opening.


13. Acidic Strength 

  1. Despite the fact that oxygen is more electronegative than sulfur, alcohols are weaker acids than thiols. $\text{R}{{\text{O}}^{-}}$, the conjugate base of alcohol, is more basic than $\text{R}{{\text{S}}^{-}}$ because the negative charge in $\text{R}{{\text{O}}^{-}}$ is placed on smaller oxygen atoms, resulting in higher charge density. However, because the $\text{R}{{\text{S}}^{-}}$ negative charge is dispersed on larger sulphur, it is a poor base and its conjugate acid is more acidic.

  2. Due to the +I effect of the alkyl group, all alcohols (except $\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{OH}$) are weaker than $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$. $\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{OH}$ is slightly more powerful than $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$. Because of the electron withdrawing benzene ring and the resonance stabilized phenolic ion, phenols are stronger than alcohol. Because alkoxide ions, the conjugate base of alcohol, lack resonance, they are less stable and more basic. Phenol is less stable than carboxylic acid, which has a strong electron-drawing carbonyl group and more stable, resonating structures.


14. Test for Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

14.1 Analysis of Alcohols-Characterization

  1. Cold concentrated sulfuric acid dissolves alcohols. This property is shared by alkenes, amines, almost all oxygen-containing compounds, and easily sulfonated compounds. (Alcohol, like other oxygen-containing compounds, produces oxonium salts that dissolve in the highly polar sulfuric acid.)

  2. Cold dilute, neutral permanganate does not oxidize alcohols (although primary and secondary alcohols are oxidized by permanganate under more vigorous conditions). However, as we've seen, alcohols frequently contain impurities that oxidize under these conditions, so the permanganate test should be used with caution.

  3. Alcohols have no effect on the color of bromine in carbon tetrachloride. This characteristic distinguishes them from alkenes and alkynes.

  4. The evolution of hydrogen gas from alcohol reactions with sodium metal is useful in characterization.

  5. The formation of an ester upon treatment with an acid chloride or anhydride often indicates the presence of a hydroxide group in a molecule. Some esters have a pleasant odor; others have high melting points and can be used to make identifications. 

  6. The Lucas test, which is based on the difference in reactivity of the three classes towards hydrogen halides, determines whether an alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary. Alcohols with fewer than six carbons are soluble in the Lucas reagent, which is a solution of concentrated hydrochloric acid and zinc chloride. The cloudiness that appears when the chloride separates from the solution indicates the formation of a chloride from an alcohol. As a result, the time required for cloudiness to appear is a measure of the alcohol's reactivity. The Lucas reagent reacts immediately with tertiary alcohol. Within five minutes, a secondary alcohol reacts. At room temperature, a primary alcohol does not react significantly. Benzyl alcohol and alllyl alcohol react with the Lucas reagent as quickly as tertiary alcohols. Allyl chlorides, on the other hand, is soluble in the reagent.


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Showing which alcohol gives positive or negative Iodoform test.


Oxidation, halogenation, and cleavage are all involved in the reaction.


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Showing Oxidation, halogenation, and cleavage reactions.


14.2 Analysis of Glycols, Periodic Acid Oxidation

$\mathrm{HI}{O_4}$ compounds with two or more-OH or C=O groups attached to adjacent carbon atoms undergo oxidation with cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds when exposed to periodic acid.


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Showing Analysis of Glycols, Periodic Acid Oxidation


14.3 Miscellaneous Tests

  1. Ceric Ammonium Nitrate Test- 

With this reagent, alcohols produce a red color.

 \[{\text{Ce}}{\left( {{\text{N}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{4}}}} \right)_{\text{2}}}{\left( {{\text{N}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}} \right)_{\text{6}}}{\text{  +  RC}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{OH}} \to {\text{Ce}}{\left( {{\text{N}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{4}}}} \right)_{\text{2}}}{\left( {{\text{N}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}} \right)_{\text{5}}} + {\text{RCOOH + HN}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}\] 

  1. Potassium Dichromate Test – 

Alcohols change the color of orange dichromate to green. Tertiary alcohols fail this test.

  1. Ester test:

Alcohol produces a fruity aroma of ester with carboxylic acid.

  1. Methanol reacts with salicylic acid to produce winter green oil.

14.4 Victor Meyer's Test

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14.5 Differentiation Test

14.5.1 Alcohols and Phenols

  1. Litmus Test: Phenol turns blue litmus red but not alcohol.

  2. Ferric Chloride: 

$\mathrm{FeCl}_{3}: \text { Phenol } \stackrel{\text { Neutral } \mathrm{FeCl}_{3}}{\longrightarrow} \text { Blue-Violet }$ 

  1. Coupling Reaction:

$\text { Phenol + Diazonium Salt } \frac{\text { weakly basic }}{\text { medium }} \text { Yellow or }$

$\text { Diazonium Salt + Alcohol } \frac{\text { weakly basic }}{\text { medium }} \text { No Reaction }$

  1. Bromine Water Test:


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Showing Bromine Water test


14.4.2 Alcohols and Ethers

  1. Alcohols react with Na to give ${{\text{H}}_{2}}$, but not ethers.

  2. Alcohol gives fumes of HCl with ${{\text{PCl}}_{5}}$ but not ethers.

14.5.3 Sodium Bicarbonate Test

Phenol, ROH and $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ do not displace $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ from carbonate \& bicarbonates but $\mathrm{RCOOH} \& \mathrm{RSO}_{3} \mathrm{H}$ gives brisk effervescence of $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ which proves that $\mathrm{RCOOH} \& \mathrm{RSO}_{3} \mathrm{H}$ are stronger acids $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{CO}_{3}$ but phenol is weaker acid than $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{CO}_{3}$. Nitrophenols also give effervescence of $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ with $\mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{CO}_{3}$. Trinitrophenol (Picric Acid) is highly acidic due to strong electron withdrawing effect of three groups its acidic strength is comparable to that of carboxylic acids. Its anion is highly resonance stabilised.



$\mathrm{RCOOH}+\mathrm{NaHCO}_{3} \longrightarrow \mathrm{RCOON}^{\ominus \oplus}+\mathrm{CO}_{2} \uparrow+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$


$\mathrm{Ph}-\mathrm{OH}+\mathrm{NaHCO}_{3} \longrightarrow \text { No Reaction}$


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15.5.4 $\mathrm{FeCl}_{3}$ Test:

Phenol gives characteristic purple colour with $\mathrm{FeCl}_{3}$ but alcohols do not react with $\mathrm{FeCl}_{3}$. Carboxylic acids also form buff coloured precipitate with $\mathrm{FeCl}_{3} .$ Only acetic acid forms red coloured precipitate with $\mathrm{FeCl}_{3}$, so it can be used as a test for acetate salts.


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Showing Ferric Chloride Test in case of phenols


How to Name Alcohols?

One of the questions that students find trouble solving is to name the alcohols. Well, we are here to help you understand the nomenclature of alcohols. Given below are the steps that will help you name alcohols. 

  • First, you need to look for the carbon atoms present in the longest carbon chain, which contains the OH group. 

  • Now you have to use the prefix to find out the carbon atom's position, which is carrying the OH bond, and then add ”ol” at the end of it. Also, take the number from that end of the chain, which is closest to the alcohol group. 

  • After that, use numbers and di-, tri-, etc, according to the formula. 

  • In case a molecule has multiple bonds in addition to the alcohol group. Give that molecule carbon that has an OH group attached to the lowest possible serial number. 


Chapter 11 Chemistry Class 12 Notes

In Class 12 Chemistry Chapter Alcohol Phenol and Ether notes, you will study how to classify different phenols and ethers and name them according to the number of hydroxyl groups attached.

(Image to be added soon)

(Alcohol-based hand sanitizer)

Monohydric phenol contains one -OH group. The dihydric phenols have two -OH groups. They can be ortho, meta, and even para-derivative. Finally, the third type of phenols is trihydric phenols, which have three -OH groups.


When it comes to the classification of ether, students will learn about two types of ether; the first one is symmetrical ether, which is also known as simple ether; in this form of ether, the alkyl or the aryl groups attached to either side of the oxygen atoms are the same.  


On the other hand, in notes of chapter 11 chemistry class 12, you will be introduced to the asymmetrical ether, which is said to be a mixed ether that has different alkyl or aryl groups attached to either side of the oxygen atoms. 


Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes

In the notes of chemistry class 12 alcohols phenols and ethers, you will also get to learn about different properties of ether. Ether is used in anesthetics and diethyl ethers also have other medical uses. Ethers are mainly colourless, sweet-smelling liquids at room temperature. 


Short Answer Type Questions

  1. Draw the structure of 2, 6-Dimethylphenol.

  2. Draw the structural formula of 2-methylpropan- 2-ol molecules.

  3. The C-O bond is much shorter in phenol than in ethanol. Give a reason.


Long Answer Type Questions

  1. Write the equations involved in the following reactions:

(i) Williamson ether synthesis

(ii) Kolbe’s reaction 

  1. How are the following conversions carried out?

(i) Propene to Propan-2-ol

(ii) Ethyl chloride to Ethanal 

Answer:

(i) Propene to propan-2-ol

  1. Write the mechanism of acid dehydration of ethanol to yield ethene. 

  2. Write the structures of the products when Butan-2-ol reacts with the following:

(a) CrO3

(b) SOCl2


Practice Questions

  1. Preparation of ethers by acid dehydration of secondary or tertiary alcohols is not a suitable method. Give reasons.

  2. Write the equation of the reaction of hydrogen iodide with:

(i) 1-propoxypropane (ii) methoxybenzene and (iii) benzyl ethyl ether

  1. How are the following conversions carried out?

(i) Propene to propan-2-ol

(ii) Benzyl chloride to Benzyl alcohol

(iii) Anisole to p-Bromoanisole


Key Features of Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11

  • Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 - Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers are curated by our subject experts as per the latest guidelines for CBSE Class 12. 

  • These Revision Notes provide a detailed explanation of the topics covered in the chapter. 

  • Students can refer to these notes by downloading them for their offline self-study.

  • These notes follow the latest curriculum of CBSE Class 12 Chemistry. So they can be used while revising the chapter.

  • All reactions are explained with labelled diagrams. 

  • Balanced chemical equations, explanations are provided wherever required.


Conclusion

The availability of free PDF download notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 - Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers is a valuable resource for students. These notes provide a concise and structured overview of the chapter, covering essential topics, reactions, and concepts. They are a convenient and accessible study aid, facilitating comprehensive revision and understanding of the subject matter. These notes cater to the needs of CBSE Class 12 students, aligning with the curriculum and examination requirements. By offering a clear and organized presentation of the content, they empower students to enhance their knowledge and perform well in exams. Overall, these free PDF download notes are a helpful supplement to classroom learning, aiding students in mastering the complexities of organic chemistry.

FAQs on Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Class 12 Notes CBSE Chemistry Chapter 11(Free PDF Download)

1. What are the important Topics Covered in Class 12 Chemistry Revision Notes for Chapter 11- Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers? 

The important topics covered in Class 12 Chemistry Revision Notes for Chapter 11- Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers are as follows.

  • Classification of Alcohols, Ethers

  • Structures of Functional Groups

  • Physical Properties

  • Preparation of Alcohols

  • Reactions of Alcohols

  • Preparation of Phenols

  • Ethers

  • Reaction of Ethers

  • Preparation of Epoxides

  • Reactions of Epoxides

  • Acidic Strength

  • Tests for Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers


Every topic and sub-topic of this chapter is discussed in detail along with the chemical reactions in these revision notes. Students are suggested to learn all the topics thoroughly to lay a strong foundation of these topics. 

2. Is Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11- Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers important for the IIT JEE Entrance Exam?

Yes, Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11- Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers is very important for the IITJEE entrance exam. Students should learn the properties of alcohols, phenols, and ethers and practice the chemical reactions given in this chapter properly so that they can answer the conceptual and application-based questions in the IITJEE exam from this chapter. 

3. Define Alcohol, Phenol, and Ether?

Alcohol, phenol, and ether, all three are organic compounds.

Alcohol: It is an organic compound in which a hydroxyl group is bonded to a saturated carbon atom.

Phenol: It is an organic compound in which a hydrogen atom is replaced by -OH group in a benzene molecule.

Ether: It is an organic compound in which two aryl or alkyl groups are bonded to an oxygen atom.

4. Differentiate between Alcohols and Phenols?

The differences between phenol and alcohol are as follows.

  • In alcohols, one or more hydroxyl group is bonded to a saturated carbon atom. In phenols, a hydroxyl group is bonded to an aromatic system of hydrocarbon.

  • Alcohols are liquids at STP, whereas, phenols are crystalline solids at STP. Both alcohols and phenols are colourless in nature.

  • Alcohols contain aliphatic hydrocarbons whereas, phenols comprise aromatic hydrocarbons.

  • Alcohols are comparatively less acidic than phenols. Since phenols are more acidic than alcohols, they are diluted while using.

  • On testing with litmus paper, alcohols do not show any colour change, whereas, phenols turn blue litmus paper red due to their acidic nature.

  • Alcohols are predominantly used in beverages, pharma, and ink industries, whereas, phenols are used as antiseptic agents and in various medicinal products. 

5. What are alcohol phenol and ether?

Chapter 11 of Class 12 Chemistry briefly discusses alcohol, phenol, and ether which are classes of organic compounds. The compound alcohol is formed when an atom of saturated carbon is bonded with an atom of the hydroxyl (-OH) group. Phenol can be formed when an atom of hydrogen in a benzene molecule is replaced by the -OH group. Ether is formed when an atom of oxygen is connected to two aryl or alkyl groups.


6. What are the uses of alcohol phenol and ether?

Ethers are used as solvents for fats, oils, waxes, resins, dyers, gums, etc. 

Alcohol is an important ingredient in alcoholic beverages. They are also used in ink, pharma, ink, and other industries. 

Phenols are prominently used in medicinal products as antiseptic agents. 

Alcohols, phenols, and ether are essential compounds used in the making of detergents, antiseptics, and fragrances. You can find more examples in NCERT for alcohol phenol and ether and why they are used. You can also download NCERT Solutions from Vedantu’s official site (vedantu.com) or the app.

7. How do NCERT Solutions help learn Chapter 11 of Class 12 Chemistry?

The aim behind curating these NCERT Solutions is to create study material that is helpful for the students and easy to learn. Chapter 11 is an important chapter from the board examination point of view and NCERT solutions help you to understand the fundamental concepts. This chapter is also important for entrance exams and competitive exams such as JEE mains, JEE advance, etc.  Thus, it makes memorizing that chapter more necessary. These solutions convert complex terms and concepts into simple language that is easy to memorize.


8. Where can I find the NCERT Solutions for Chapter 11 of Class 12 Chemistry?

NCERT Solutions for Chapter 11 are available on the internet at Vedantu’s official site (vedantu.com) free of cost. You can find NCERT Solutions related to Chapter 11 along with the important questions, extra questions to practice, examples for various compounds, MCQs, the meaning of difficult terms, quizzes, assignments, etc. You can also download Vedantu’s learning app for some educational videos to understand the concepts of organic compounds. 


9. Is it necessary to learn diagrams of Chapter 11 of Class 12 Chemistry?

The diagrams in Chapter 11 are necessary as they help to understand the addition and subtraction of the compounds. The diagrams are also important to have a visual representation of the configuration of the atoms and compounds that are invisible to human beings. Visual representation helps students to remember the concepts for a longer period. The diagrams in Chapter 11 are also important from an examination point of view. Adding these diagrams to your answers will improve your chances to score high marks in your board examinations as well.